The archdeacon had thus become, on the one hand, the oculus episcopi, but on the other hand, armed as he was with powers of imposing penance and, in case of stubborn disobedience, of excommunicating offenders, his power tended more and more to grow at the bishop's expense.
Johann Zahn, in his Oculus Artificialis Teledioptricus (1685-1686), described and figured two forms of portable box cameras with lenses.
Oculus-solis and T.
Oculus solis, i ft., scarlet with black centre; and T.
Descartes, in his treatise on Dioptrics (1637), attributes the discovery to Metius "about thirty years ago," whilst Schyraelus de Rheita, a Capuchin friar, in his Oculus Enoch et Eliae (Antwerp, 1645), gives the credit to Lippershey about 1609.