A little north of Preveza are the considerable ruins of Nikopolis, founded by Octavian to commemorate the victory of Actium.
Antonius took refuge there, and was reduced by Octavian after a long siege.
It appears to have been still more reduced under Octavian, Lepidus and Antony, when its value was 3 of an ounce.
The senate of Rome under the influence of Antony and Octavian ratified the claims of Herod, and after some delay lent him the armed force necessary to make them good.
Vibo was the naval base of Octavian in the conflict with Sextus Pompeius (42-36 B.C.).
Octavian enlarged his kingdom by the addition of part of Cilicia and Lesser Armenia.
He lost his father prematurely; and after the battle of Philippi and the return of Octavian to Rome, Propertius, like Virgil and Horace, was deprived of his, estate to provide land for the veterans, but, unlike them, he had no patrons at court, and he was reduced from opulence to comparative indigence.
Dio Cassius says that Bocchus sent his sons to support Sextus Pompeius in Spain, while Bogud fought on the side of Caesar, and there is no doubt that after Caesar's death Bocchus supported Octavian, and Bogud Antony, During Bogud's absence in Spain, his brother seized the whole of Numidia, and was confirmed sole ruler by Octavian.
In 40 he helped to arrange the peace of Brundisium by which Octavian (Augustus) and Antonius were for a time reconciled.
Its chief distinctions are that during the later Republic and earlier Empire it yielded excellent soldiers, and thus much aided the success of Caesar against Pompey and of Octavian against Antony, and that it gave Rome the poet Virgil (by origin a Celt), the historian Livy, the lyrist Catullus, Cornelius Nepos, the elder and the younger Pliny and other distinguished writers?
He first appears in history in 40 B.C., when he was employed by Octavian in arranging his marriage with Scribonia, and afterwards in assisting to negotiate the peace of Brundusium and the reconciliation with Antony.
He was vicegerent of Octavian during the campaign of Actium, when, with great promptness and secrecy, he crushed the conspiracy of the younger Lepidus; and during the subsequent absences of his chief in the provinces he again held the same position.
To his influence especially was attributed the humaner policy of Octavian after his first alliance with Antony and Lepidus.
Antony repeatedly made Athens his headquarters and granted her several new possessions, including Eretria and Aegina - grants which Octavian subsequently revoked.
There Julius Caesar dallied with Cleopatra in 47 B.C. and was mobbed by the rabble; there his example was followed by Antony, for whose favour the city paid dear to Octavian, who placed over it a prefect from the imperial household.
The word even occurred as a singular in the metrical romance of Octavian:" Ferst they sent out a doseper."
He was of the same age as Octavian (as the emperor was then called), and was studying with him at Apollonia when news of Julius Caesar's assassination (44) arrived.
By his advice Octavian at once set out for Rome.
The victory at Actium (31), which gave the mastery of Rome and the empire of the world to Octavian, was mainly due to Agrippa.
As a token of signal regard Octavian bestowed upon him the hand of his niece Marcella (28).
In 27 Agrippa was consul for the third time, and in the following year the senate bestowed upon Octavian the emperial title of Augustus.
Heliopolis was made a colonia probably by Octavian (coins of 1 st century A.D.), and there must have been a Baal temple there in which Trajan consulted the oracle.
When Pompeius, having been defeated in a naval engagement at Naulochus by the fleet of Octavian under Agrippa, fled to Asia, Cassius went over to Antony, and took part in the battle of Actium (31).
He afterwards fled to Athens, where he was soon put to death by Octavian, whom he had offended by writing an abusive letter (Suetonius, Augustus, 4).
His original name was Octavian, but when he assumed the papal tiara as successor to Agapetus II., he adopted the apostolic name of John, the first example, it is said, of the custom of altering the surname in connexion with elevation to the papal chair.
After Caesar's murder, Balbus seems to have attached himself to Octavian; in 43 or 42 he was praetor, and in 40 consul - an honour then for the first time conferred on an alien.
In 31 B.C. it served Octavian (Augustus) as a base against Antony.
Caesar, or Octavian, added others, so that there are three classes, Arretini veteres, Fidentiores, and Iulienses.
He taught the young Octavian (afterwards Augustus) at Apollonia, and was a pupil of Posidonius at Rhodes.
It was especially famous for its rich and much venerated temple of Juno Sospes, from which Octavian borrowed money in 31 B.C., and the possessions of which extended as far as the sea-coast (T.
A great temple to Jupiter Capitolinus rose on Silpius, probably at the instance of Octavian, whose cause the city had espoused.
In the Roman city of Nikopolis the temple built by Octavian to Mars and Neptune, in commemoration of the battle of Actium, was excavated in 1912, and fragments of its structure were recovered.
Crassus took it in 83 B.C.; and a colony was founded there by Octavian, including some soldiers of the 41st legion, which only existed in his time, after which it bore the name Colonia Iulia fida Tuder.
At the instance of Mark Antony, and with the assent of Octavian, the senate declared him king of Judaea, and after two years' fighting he made his title good.
In the war between Antony and Octavian Cleopatra prevented Herod from joining Antony and so left him free to pay court to Octavian after Actium (31 B.C.).
A year later Octavian restored to the Jewish kingdom Jericho, Gadara, Hippos, Samaria, Gaza Anthedon, Joppa and Straton's Tower (Caesarea).
His policy, stated briefly, was to make use of Octavian, whose name was all-powerful with the veterans, until new legions had been raised which would follow the republican commanders (Phil.
Cicero pledged his credit for the loyalty of Octavian, who styled him " father " and affected to take his advice on all occasions (Epp. ad Brut.
The breach, however, was bound to come, and the saying, maliciously attributed to Cicero, that Octavian was an " excellent youth who must be praised and - sent to another place," neatly expresses the popular view of the situation.'
Junius Brutus for truckling to Octavian while showing irreconcilable enmity to Antony and Lepidus (ad Brut.
He was naturally included in the list of the proscribed, though it is said that Octavian fought long on his behalf, and was slain near Formiae on the 7th of December 43.
To Caesar, to Pompey, to Octavian and to his son Marcus.
In spite of this, he received signal marks of distinction from Octavian, who not only nominated him augur, but accepted him as his colleague in the consulship (30).
By Octavian they were employed in strengthening his hold on the West, and his claim to be regarded as the one possible saviour of Rome and Roman civilization.
In 3 2 B.C. Antony's repudiation of his wife Octavia, sister of Octavian, and the discovery of his will, with its clear proofs of Cleopatra's dangerous ascendancy, brought matters to a climax, and war was declared, not indeed against Antony, but against Cleopatra.
In the summer Octavian returned to Italy, and in August celebrated a three days' triumph.
The controlling authority, which Octavian himself wielded, could not indeed be safely dispensed with.
Octavian was legally invested for a period of ten years with the government of the important frontier provinces, with the sole command of the military and naval forces of the state, and the exclusive control of its foreign relations.
The harbour established by Agathocles proved of great service as a naval station to Caesar and Octavian in their wars with Pompeius Magnus and Sextus Pompeius, and remains of its massive masonry still exist at the village of Bivona on the coast, while the fort occupies the site of a temple.
Brutus refused to surrender the province, and Antony set out to attack him in October 44, But at this time Octavian, whom Caesar had adopted as his son, arrived from Illyria, and claimed the inheritance of his "father."
Octavian obtained the support of the senate and of Cicero; and the veteran troops of the dictator flocked to his standard.
Antony was denounced as a public enemy, and Octavian was entrusted with the command of the war against him.
Octavian betrayed his party, and came to terms with Antony and Lepidus.
In the following year (42) Antony and Octavian proceeded against the conspirators Cassius and Brutus, and by the two battles of Philippi annihilated the senatorial and republican parties.
At length he was aroused by the Parthian invasion of Syria and the report of an outbreak between Fulvia his wife and Lucius his brother on the one hand and Octavian on the other.
On arriving in Italy he found that Octavian was already victorious; on the death of Fulvia, a reconciliation was effected between the triumvirs, and cemented by the marriage of Antony with Octavia, the sister of his colleague.
A new division of the Roman world was made at Brundusium, Lepidus receiving Africa, Octavian the west, and Antony the east.
In 41 he was consul, and had a dispute with Octavian, which led to the so-called Perusian War, in which he was supported by Fulvia (Mark Antony's wife), who was anxious to recall her husband from Cleopatra's court.
On the approach of Octavian, he retired to Perusia in Etruria, where he was besieged by three armies, and compelled to surrender (winter of 41).
His life was spared, and he was sent by Octavian to Spain as governor.
Wedderburn, Bart., Allan Octavian Hume, C.B.: Father of the Indian National Congress (1913); and Allan O.
On the 7th of September 1159 he was chosen the successor of Adrian IV., a minority of the cardinals, however, electing the cardinal priest Octavian, who assumed the name of Victor IV.
A little later a colony was conducted hither by the triumvirs or by Octavian; whether after Philippi or after Actium is uncertain.
Its inhabitants fought in 43-41 B.C. against Octavian, and were punished by him for erecting a monument in honour of those who fell.