It is obtainable from most natural fatty bodies by the action of alkalis and similar reagents, whereby the fats are decomposed, water being taken up, and glycerin being formed together with the alkaline salt of some particular acid (varying with the nature of the fat).
The figures obtainable with respect to shipping are approximate, the statistical data not being altogether complete.
Promotion was regular, but was obtainable only by entering at an early age one of the medresses or colleges; the student, after passing through the successive degrees of danishmend, mulazim and muderris, became first a molla, then a judge, rising to the higher ranks as fortune and opportunity offered.
Similar results are obtainable by means of the remaining perforations.
To lead men forward under fire more discipline (obtainable only by movement in masses) is needed than is needed to resist attacks.
If double-bottomed defecators are used in sufficient number to allow an hour and a half to two hours for making each defecation, and if they are of a size which permits any one of them to be filled up by the cane-mill with juice in ten to twelve minutes, they will make as perfect a defecation as is obtainable by any known system; but their employment involves the expenditure of much high-pressure steam (as exhaust steam will not heat the juice quickly enough through the small surface of the hemispherical inner bottom), and also the use of filter presses for treating the scums. A great deal of skilled superintendence is also required, and first cost is comparatively large.
In Nejd the number of horses is, comparatively speaking, very small; the want of water in the Nafud where alone forage is obtainable, and the absence of forage in the neighbourhood of the towns makes horse-breeding on a large scale impracticable there.
In explanation of the fact that he did not essay this route in former times, it may be noted, first, that he had only a limited acquaintance with the wares in question; secondly, that Japanese connoisseurs never attached any value to their countrymens imitation of Chinese porcelains so long as the originals were obtainable; thirdly, that the ceramic art of China not having fallen into, its present state of decadence, the idea of competing with it did not occur to outsiders; and fourthly, that Europe and America had not developed their present keen appreciation of Chinese masterpieces.
The balance of work obtainable in such a cycle depends on the limits of temperature in a manner which forms the subject of the second law.
- Carnot adopted as the analytical expression of his principle the statement that the efficiency W/H, or the work obtainable per unit of heat by means of a perfect engine taking in heat at a temperature t° C. and rejecting heat at o° C., must be some function F(t) of the temperature t, the lower limit o° C. being supposed constant.
He therefore employed the corresponding expression for a cycle of infinitesimal range dt at the temperature t in which the work dW obtainable from a quantity of heat H would be represented by the equation dW =HF'(t)dt, where F'(t) is the derived function of F(t), or dF(t)/dt, and represents the work obtainable per unit of heat per degree fall of temperature at a temperature t.
The increment of this area (or the decrement of the negative area E--04) at constant temperature represents the external work obtainable from the substance in isothermal expansion, in the same way that the decrement of the intrinsic energy represents the work done in adiabatic expansion.
These functions do not, however, represent energy existing in the substance, like the intrinsic energy; but the increment of 90 represents heat supplied to, and the decrement of (E-04) represents work obtainable from, the substance when the temperature is kept constant.
Before the commercial production of calcium carbide made it one of the most easily obtainable gases, the processes which were most largely adopted for its preparation in laboratories were: - first, the decomposition of ethylene bromide by dropping it slowly into a boiling solution of alcoholic potash, and purifying the evolved gas from the volatile bromethylene by washing it through a second flask containing a boiling solution of alcoholic potash, or by passing it over moderately heated soda lime; and, second, the more ordinarily adopted process of passing the products of incomplete combustion from a Bunsen burner, the flame of which had struck back, through an ammoniacal solution of cuprous chloride, when the red copper acetylide was produced.
In early districts seeding may take place as early as February, provided a fine tilth is obtainable, but it rarely extends beyond the end of April.
On the Pacific coast, where excellent timber is obtainable and steel works are distant, combination bridges are still largely used (Ottewell, Trans.
Meat is eaten, but, as the slaughter of animals is against Buddhist tenets, is not often obtainable, with the exception of pork, killed by Chinese.
This is only obtainable in warm and moist localities where rains are frequent and copious.
Metallic yttrium is obtainable as.
Only one external source can be named: the falling of meteors into the sun must yield some heat just as a shooting star yields some heat to our atmosphere, but the question is whether the quantity of heat obtainable from the shooting stars is at all adequate for the purpose.
Nearly all the information now obtainable is to be found in the following works and such as are there quoted: S.
There are no figures obtainable as to the production, but it must be very large, considering that the crop provides clothing for a large proportion of the population of China.
Prawns, crayfish and oysters are also obtainable, and turtle (Chelonia mydas) are frequently captured.
The first maximum in fact occurs when 6=2A-0046X, and the first minimum when 5 = 8X- oo16X, the corrections being readily obtainable from a table of G by substitution of the approximate value of V.
As in the case of a musical string, so here we find that the pitch of the note is higher for a given plate the greater the number of ventral segments into which it is divided; but the converse of this does not hold good, two different notes being obtainable with the same number of such segments, the position of the nodal lines being, however, different.
Lastly, to allow for the superior centering of the shot obtainable with the breech-loading system, Bashforth introduces a factor a, called the coefficient of steadiness.
A slide rule should be used for the arithmetical operations, as it works to the accuracy obtainable in practice.
Such a scheme does not lend itself to discussion here; but as far as evidence is at present obtainable, the conclusion that the fourth evangelist drew up his narrative on the basis of a two years' rather than a one year's ministry appears to be irrefragable.
Lyell marshalled all the observations he could collect in support of this principle, teaching that the present is the key to the past, and arraying all obtainable evidence against the cataclysmic theories of Cuvier.
About one-sixth of this weight is pure cocoon, and of that one-half is obtainable as reeled silk, the remainder consisting of surface floss or blaze and of hard gummy husk.
If we widen the slit still further rapid loss of purity results, with very little gain in light, the maximum luminosity obtainable with an indefinitely wide slit being four times that obtained with the normal one.
The widening of lines does not lend itself easily to accurate measurements; more precise numerical data are obtainable by the study of the displacements consequent on increased density which were discovered and studied by W.
Many types of mixing machines are obtainable; the favourite type is one in which the materials are placed in a large iron box which is made to rotate, thus tumbling the matrix and aggregate over each other again and again.
The aggregate should be the best obtainable and of different sizes, the stones being freshly crushed and screened to pass through a -'s in.
When a person disappears, so that no direct proof of his whereabouts or death is obtainable, death may be presumed at the expiration of seven years from the period when the person was last heard of.
If the finer earthy sands only are obtainable, they must be rendered sharper by washing away the earthy particles.
Various kinds of grafting wax are now obtainable, and are a great improvement upon the clay process.
All grafting of this kind is done in the propagating house, at any season when grafts are obtainable in a fit state - the plants when operated on being placed in close frames warmed to a suitable temperature.
At one time thousands of buffalo skins were obtainable and provided material for most useful coats and rugs for rough wear in cold regions, but to-day only a herd or so of the animals remain, and in captivity.
- In the earlier days of the tea trade, adulteration, especially prior to importation, was frequent, because the prices obtainable made it remunerative.
Now, intentional adulteration is practically non-existent, chiefly because of the fact that in the places of production the price obtainable is so low that any possible adulterant would be too costly to collect.
Thunder.-Trustworthy frequency statistics for an individual station are obtainable only from a long series of observations, while if means are taken from a large area places may be included which differ largely amongst themselves.
He shows that the amount of work obtainable is equal to that which can be done by the first gas in expanding into the space occupied by the second (supposed vacuous) together with that done by the second in expanding into the space occupied by the first.
The difficulty experienced is that of securing a good electrical contact under the very slight pressure obtainable from an instrument excited by attenuated arrival-currents.
Meanwhile his servant, who was said to have been the intermediary between the duke and the Company in the transaction, fled the country; and no evidence being obtainable to convict, the proceedings fell to the ground.
This governmental sanction has been obtainable only with difficulty, and after the exercise of numerous legal forms, in Great Britain and on the continent of Europe.
In Europe a similar demon is said to be obtainable from a cock's egg.
CC13+C02 O?OIi O / O / (4) Cl2HC CO CHCl2+CH302C CCl2C02CH3 (5) Cl2HC CONH2 Cl (z) (2) When phenol is oxidized in acid solution by chlorine, tetrachlorquinone is obtained, a compound also obtainable from hydroquinone.
Baeyer pointed out that although benzene derivatives were obtainable from hexamethylene compounds, yet it by no means follows that only hexamethylene compounds need result when benzene compounds are reduced.
1827) edited the complete works of his mother in seventeen volumes (Paris, 1820-1821), with a notice by Mme Necker de Saussure, and the edition was afterwards republished in a compacter form, and, supplemented by some Ouvres inedites, is still obtainable in three volumes, large 8vo (Didot).
The available energy A is the amount of external work obtainable by an infinitesimal, reversible change in the system which occurs at a constant temperature T.
Some general information as to the Platonic doctrines (chiefly in a Neoplatonic garb) was obtainable from the commentary with which Chalcidius (6th century) accompanied his translation, from the work of Apuleius (2nd century) De dogmate Platonis, and indirectly from the commentary of Macrobius (c. 400) on the Somnium Scipionis of Cicero, and from the writings of St Augustine.
We conclude that, with a grating composed of transparent and opaque parts, the utmost light obtainable in any one spectrum is in the first, and there amounts to I/wr 2, or about 6, and that for this purpose W a and d must be equal.
Salt is obtainable from the many pans in the plateaus, notably in the Zout(salt)pansberg, and was formerly manufactured in considerable quantities.
If a fourth integral is obtainable, the solution is reducible to quadrature, but this is not possible except in a limited series of cases, investigated by H.
In Barbadoes there are still many estates making good Mascabado sugar; but as the juice is extracted from the canes by windmills, and then concentrated in open kettles heated by direct fire, the financial results are disastrous, since nearly half the yield obtainable from the canes is lost.
With an inexhaustible supply of irrigation water obtainable, there is no reason why the lands in Upper Egypt, if scientifically cultivated and managed, should not yield as abundantly as those in the Sandwich Islands.
These investigations lead, in turn, to further formulae, which, though not obtainable by elementary methods, are nevertheless simple in themselves and of practical utility.
The distress of the years 1846-47, the causes of which he discerned in the slight amount of credit obtainable by the small landed proprietors, led him to seek for a remedy in co-operation, and at Heddersdorf and at Weyerbusch he founded the first agricultural co-operative loan banks (Darlehnskassenverein).
The purity of the carbide entirely depends on the purity of the material used in its manufacture, and before this fact had been fully grasped by manufacturers, and only the purest material obtainable employed, it contained notable quantities of compounds which during its decomposition by water yielded a somewhat high pro portion of impurities in the acetylene generated from it.
Again, popularly, an unproved ex cathedra statement of any kind is called " dogmatic," with perhaps an insinuation that it is being obstinately adhered to without, or beyond, or in defiance of, obtainable evidence.