(b) The obstructive use made by the local authorities of their power to veto underground wayleaves.
There was first of all the old crusading grudge against the Eastern empire, and its fatal policy of regarding the whole of the Levant as its lost provinces, to be restored as soon as conquered, or at any rate held in fee, by the Western crusaders - a policy which led the Eastern emperors either to give niggardly aid or to pursue obstructive tactics, and caused them to be blamed for the failure of the Crusades in riot, and 1149, and in 1190.
The two great recurring " necessities of State," the budget and the authorization of the contingents of army recruits, regularly occupied a large part of the sittings; the budget was generally passed only in instalments in three or six monthly grants, and the Government was forced to adopt the practice of adjourning the obstructive House of Deputies and of providing for indispensable requirements in its absence by emergency decree.
By its provisions communications from the Government and the other House, and reports of commissions, had to take precedence of other business; further, the president could postpone to the end of the sitting formal motions, interpellations, emergency motions, and other obstructive measures.
The liberum veto and all the intricate and obstructive machinery of the anomalous old system were for ever abolished.
The fact that the Vatican presents a great force hostile to and obstructive of certain characteristic tendencies of modern life and thought has; necessarily raised up a powerful opposition even in countries traditionally Catholic. France no longer deserves the title of eldest daughter of the Church; the Catholicism of Italy is largely superficial; even Spain has shown signs of restiveness.
So recently as about 1880 it discharged into the Gulf of Smyrna, but the shoals formed by its silt-laden waters were so obstructive to navigation that it was turned back into its old bed.
This process, in effect, leaves each orifice surrounded by a hemisphere of coarse sand across which the water flows with comparative freedom from a larger hemisphere where the corresponding velocity is very slow, and where the presence of finer and more obstructive particles is therefore unimportant.
In other respects, the legislative achievements of the government were not great; and the time of parliament was largely occupied in devising rules for the conduct of its business, which the obstructive attitude of the Irish members made necessary, and in discussing the charges brought against the Nationalist party by The Times, of complicity in the Phoenix Park murders.
Notwithstanding these new rules obstructive tactics continued to prevail; and, in the course of the parliament, many members were suspended for disorderly conduct.