Allied with the Liberals against the orthodox Protestants, who were threatening religious liberty, the Catholics assisted in 1857 to establish a system of non-sectarian state schools, where attendance is not obligatory nor instruction gratuitous.
According to Mommsen, although the institution was not intended to be permanent, in later times vacancies in the ranks were filled in this manner, with the result that service in the cavalry, with either a public or a private horse, became obligatory upon all Roman citizens possessed of a certain income.
The Benefices Act 1898 substitutes and makes obligatory on every person about to be instituted to a benefice a simpler and more stringent form of declaration against simony.
Carnot set to work to organize the primary school systems, proposing a law for obligatory and free primary instruction, and another for the secondary education of girls_ But he declared himself against purely secular schools, holding that "the minister and the schoolmaster are the two columns on which rests the edifice of the republic."
Schedules were exchanged until a free weekend opened up, after our obligatory trip to Iowa and Betsy's parents.
Together with Szilagyi, the Minister of Justice, Csaky was one of the most decided champions of obligatory civil marriage and of the rights of the Jews.
The local institutions were assimilated to those of the purely Russian provinces; the use of the Russian language was made obligatory in the administration, in the tribunals and to some extent in the schools; the spread of Eastern Orthodoxy was encouraged by the authorities, whilst the other confessions were placed under severe restrictions; foreigners were prohibited from possessing landed property; and in some provinces administrative measures were taken for making the land pass into the hands of Orthodox Russians.
(a) The division into periodical and occasional is important in Hindu and other higher religions, and the sutras constantly draw the distinction; the former class is obligatory, the latter facultative.
The position of Sachu (or Saitu) in Mongolia may be taken as an obligatory point in modern map construction.
The longitude of Darchendo, or Tachienlu, on the extreme east, may be accepted as another obligatory point.
(586-601) to orthodoxy effaced the religious differences among his subjects, and all subjects, qua Christians, had to submit to the canons of the councils, which were made obligatory by the kings.
The offices known to the Quaker body are: (1) that of minister (the term " office " is not strictly applicable, see above as to " recording "); (2) of elder, whose duty it is " to encourage and help young ministers, and advise others as they, in the wisdom of God, see occasion "; (3) of overseer, to whom is especially entrusted that duty of Christian care for and interest in one another which Quakers recognize as obligatory in all the members of a church.
In virtue of the enactments of May 1880, of November 1886, of February 1888 and of December 1903, military service had been obligatory on all Mussulmans, Christians having been excluded but under obligation of paying a " military exoneration tax " of T50 for 135 males between the ages of 15 and 75.
Fiefs with a revenue of from 3000 to 20,000 aspres were timars, furnishing one armed warrior for every 3000 aspres' revenue; the grant of a fief was conditional on obligatory residence.
In the additional explanatory notes at the end of the book, after directions as to the wearing of surplice and hood in quire, in cathedral and collegiate churches (they are not made obligatory elsewhere), bishops are directed to wear, besides the rochet, a surplice or alb, and a cope or vestment, with a pastoral staff borne either by themselves or their chaplains.'
The Obligatory Civil Marriage Bill, the State Registries Bill and the Religion of Children of Mixed Marriages Bill, were finally adopted on the 21st of June 1894, after fierce debates and a ministerial interregnum of ten days (June 10-20); but on the 25th of December, Wekerle, who no longer possessed the king's confidence,' resigned a second time, and was succeeded by Baron Dersb (Desiderius) Banffy.
The establishment of Singh Sabhas, of Sikh newspapers, and the spread of education have largely tended in the same direction, but the strict ethical code of Sikhism and the number of its obligatory divine services have caused many to fall away from the faith: nor does the austere Sikh ritual appeal to women, who generally prefer Hinduism with its picturesque material worship and the brightness of its innumerable festivals.
As organized under the law of the 5th of December 1905, primary instruction is free and nominally obligatory, and is under the control of the national government.
Now military service is obligatory for all Peruvians between the ages of 19 and 50, who are divided into four classes, first and second reserves (19 to 30, and 30 to 35 years), supernumeraries (those who have purchased exemption from service in the regular army), and the national guard (35 to 50 years).
Fasts, obligatory on all above seven years of age, are held on every Monday and Thursday, on every new moon, and at the passover (the 21st or 22nd of April).
The harsh treatment of the Hanoverian demands was inspired by him, and won favour with the queen, while Oxford's influence declined; and by his support of the Schism Bill in May 1714, a violent Tory measure forbidding all education by dissenters by making an episcopal licence obligatory for schoolmasters, he probably intended to compel Oxford to give up the game.
The summoning of provincial synods, which was made obligatory every three years by the council, was long neglected, but is now more common wherever the political conditions, e.g.
The absence of the chief magistrate for more than a single day rendered the appointment of a praefect obligatory; but the obligation only arose when all the higher magistrates were absent.
The "obligatory referendum" exists in the case of all laws, while 8000 citizens have the right of "initiative" in proposing bills or alterations in the cantonal constitution.
Briefly, the duty of maintaining industries was made obligatory, and in the last resort the military authorities were empowered to take them over, though this was not likely to happen as long as the high prices continued and the Government supplied raw materials.
In the patronage of learning and in the exercise of authority over the morals and education of youth Laud was in his proper sphere, many valuable reforms at Oxford being due to his activity, including the codification of the statutes, the statute by which public examinations were rendered obligatory for university degrees, and the ordinance for the election of proctors, the revival of the college system, of moral and religious discipline and order, and of academic dress.
If the purchaser farmed the land himself and made satisfactory progress, the period of obligatory residence was reduced to five years.
Its founder, with a wise instinct, had forbidden the accumulation of wealth; its own constitutions, as revised in the 84th decree of the sixth general congregation, had forbidden all pursuits of a commercial nature, as also had various popes; but nevertheless the trade went on unceasingly, necessarily with the full knowledge of the general, unless it be pleaded that the system of obligatory espionage had completely broken down.
At this conference a plan of arbitration was drawn up, under which arbitration was made obligatory in all controversies whatever their origin, with the single exception that it should not apply where, in the judgment of any one of the nations involved in the controversy, its national.
Independence was imperilled, and even in this case arbitration, though optional for the nation so judging, was to be obligatory for the adversary power.
By the law of Moses it became obligatory upon the brother of a man dying childless to take his widow as wife.
They renounced their allegiance to King James and were greatly disappointed when their standards found no place in the religious settlement of 1689, continuing to hold the belief that the covenants should be made obligatory upon the entire nation.
Hitherto since 1842 in all primary schools instruction by the clergy in the Catholic faith was obligatory,children belonging School g g law of to other persuasions being dispensed from attendance.
Primary education was dealt with in 1895 by a law, which made religious instruction obligatory, and extended state support to all schools that satisfied certain conditions.
The Catholic party also strove to mitigate the principle of obligatory military service by encouraging the system of volunteering and by a reduction of the time of active service and of the number with the colours.
In all official communications the Russian language is obligatory, and a gradual elimination of Poles from the administration has been effected.
Bouillon, &c. For officers in the army, there are the Ecole de Guerre or staff college at Brussels with an average attendance of twenty, a riding school at Ypres where a course is obligatory for the cavalry and horse artillery, and for soldiers in the army there are regimental schools and evening classes for illiterate soldiers.
The obligatory Referendum obtains in the case of all laws, and of decrees relating to an expenditure of over half a million francs, while 12,000 citizens have the right of initiative in the case of legislative projects, and 15,000 may demand the revision of the cantonal constitution.
The lake becomes a sort of obligatory point on all routes to Tibet which lie between Ladak and Nepal.
In general, these engagements bore upon the limitation of the number of cardinals, the prohibition to nominate new ones without previous notification to the Sacred College, the sharing between the cardinals and the pope of certain revenues specified by a bull of Nicholas IV., and the obligatory consultation of the consistories for the principal acts of the temporal and spiritual government.
In the 9th and 10th century it was even made obligatory, by the decrees of the synods of Mainz (813) and Tribur (895), on priests throughout the Frank Empire to wear it at all times, especially when travelling.
According to law military service is obligatory, but the government has been unable to enforce it.