Every effort must be made to integrate the child with nystagmus into a normal school setting in order to prepare the child for adult life, even if cosmetic concerns may instinctively lead the parent to want to protect the child.
Diagnosis of nystagmus is made primarily by patient history as reported by a parent, the age of onset, and observation of any accompanying signs such as a head turn, tilt or tremor, or oscillopsia.
A periodic alternating nystagmus (PAN) is observed in primary gaze when the patient is looking straight ahead and is characterized by eye movements that continuously change direction and speed.
Children with nystagmus who have their the null point located at a position in which the eyes are positioned inward may develop an esotropia, a form of strabismus or eye turn.
Chiari II malformation: Impaired swallowing and gag reflex, loss of the breathing reflex, facial paralysis, uncontrolled eye movements (nystagmus), impaired balance and gait.
Other causes of acquired nystagmus are Arnold-Chiari malformations, vitamin deficiencies, syphilis, Wernicke's encephalopathy, Behcet's syndrome, and Meniere's disease.
Children with nystagmus are not aware that they may have a visual deficiency and as they get older must be helped with the restrictions that nystagmus places on them.
Drugs called GABA agonists, such as baclofen and carbamazepine, are useful in treatment of seesaw nystagmus and PAN, if the nystagmus is acquired and not congenital.
There is some reason to believe that a peculiar condition found in the majority of human albinoes, and known as nystagmus, is correlated with the absence of pigment in the central nervous system.
In complete human albinoes, albinism is correlated, in addition to nystagmus, with a peculiar roughness of the skin, making it harsh to the touch.