Thus began the so-called Northern War, which lasted intermittently for more than twenty years, and was terminated by the treaty of Nystad (Sept.
On the occasion of the peace of Nystad, which terminated the 21 years' war between Russia and Sweden, Bestuzhev designed and struck a commemorative medal with a panegyrical Latin inscription, which so delighted Peter (then at Derbent) that he sent a letter of thanks written with his own hand and his portrait set in brilliants.
The official concession was confirmed by the treaty of Nystad in 1721.
On receiving the tidings of the conclusion of the peace of Nystad (August 30, 1721), Peter declared, with perfect justice, that it was the most profitable peace Russia had ever concluded.
The official birthday of the Russian empire was the 22nd of October 1721, when, after a solemn thanksgiving service in the Troitsa Cathedral for the peace of Nystad, the tsar proceeded to the senate and was there acclaimed: "Father of the Fatherland, Peter the Great, and Emperor of All Russia."
Ever since the conclusion of the Great Northern War, Danish statesmen had been occupied in harvesting its fruits, namely, the Gottorp portions of Schleswig definitely annexed to Denmark in 1721 by the treaty of Nystad, and endeavouring to bring about a definitive general understanding with the house of Gottorp as to their remaining possessions in Holstein.
It is to this series that the well-known Rapakivi granite of Aland, Nystad and Viborg belongs.
By the peace of Nystad in 1721 the province of Viborg, the eastern division of Finland, was finally ceded to Russia.
In 1521 the nobles and cities of Esthonia voluntarily placed themselves under the protection of the crown of Sweden; but after the wars of Charles XII., Esthonia was formally ceded to his victorious rival, Peter the Great, by the peace of Nystad (1721).
In 1721 Osterman concluded the peace of Nystad with Sweden, and was created a baron for his services.
(July 3, 1720) peace was also signed between Denmark and Sweden, Denmark retroceding Riigen, Further Pomerania as far as the Peene, and Wismar to Sweden, in exchange for an indemnity of 600,000 rix-dollars, while Sweden relinquished her exemption from the Sound tolls and her protectorate over Holstein-Gottorp. The prospect of coercing Russia by means of the British fleet had alone induced Sweden to consent to such sacrifices; but when the last demands of England and her allies had been complied with, Sweden of was left to come to terms as best she could with Peace Nystad, the tsar.
Loss Nystad, in May 1720, but peace was not concluded of the Baltic till the 30th of August 1721, and then only under Provinces.
By the peace of Nystad Sweden ceded to Russia Ingria and Esthonia, Livonia, the Finnish province of Kexholm and the fortress of Viborg.
The province occupies a prominent position in Finland for its manufacture of cottons, sugar refinery, wooden goods, metals, machinery, paper, &c. Its chief towns are: Abo (pop. 42,639), BjOrneborg (16,053), Raumo (5501), Nystad (4165), Mariehamn (r171), Nadendal (917).