Having filled the post of nuncio in England and Spain, he served successive popes as adviser in matters pertaining to heresy and reform.
The papal nuncio at Prague, in particular, appears for a time to have obtained great influence over the king.
The pope had repeatedly used the rich northern benefices to reward members of the Roman curia, and towards the close of the year 1516 he sent the grasping and impolitic Arcimboldi as papal nuncio to Denmark to collect money for St Peter's.
Took advantage of the growing dissatisfaction on the part of the native clergy toward the papal government, and of Arcimboldi's interference in the Swedish revolt, in order to expel the nuncio and summon (1520) Lutheran theologians to Copenhagen.
Leo sent a new nuncio to Copenhagen (1521) in the person of the Minorite Francesco de Potentia, who readily absolved the king and received the rich bishopric of Skara.
Xavier complied, merely waiting long enough to obtain the pope's benediction, and set out for Lisbon, where he was presented to the king, and soon won his entire confidence, attested notably by procuring for him from the pope four briefs, one of them appointing him papal nuncio in the Indies.
He was successively inquisitor at Malta, vice-legate at Ferrara and nuncio in Cologne (1639-1651).
In March 1646 a cessation of hostilities was arranged between Ormonde and the Catholics; and O'Neill, furnished with supplies by the papal nuncio, Rinuccini, turned against the Scottish parliamentary army under General Monro, who had been operating with fluctuating success in Ireland since April 1642.
Isolated by the departure of the papal nuncio from Ireland in February 1649, he made overtures for alliance to Ormonde, and afterwards with success to Monck, who had superseded Monro in command of the parliamentarians in the north.
Consecrated titular archbishop of Heraclea in 1885, he returned to Madrid as nuncio, but was shortly afterwards created cardinal and appointed to the papal secretaryship of state.
These charges he met successfully by insisting that the nuncio should thoroughly inquire into the matter.
In 1843 he was sent as nuncio to Brussels, being first consecrated a bishop (19th February), with the title of archbishop of Damietta.
In the following year he went to Germany to be present as papal nuncio at the coronation of Charles V., and was also present at the diet of Worms, where he headed the opposition to Luther, advocating the most extreme measures to repress the doctrines of the reformer.
After the close of the diet the papal nuncio went to the Netherlands, where he kindled the flames of persecution, two monks of Antwerp, the first martyrs of the Reformation, being burnt in Brussels at his instigation.
In 1523 Clement VII., having appointed him archbishop of Brindisi and Oria, sent him as nuncio to the court of Francis I.
The pope refused to interfere directly, and the nuncio, Mgr Lorenzelli, failed in securing more than ten public adhesions to the cardinal's condemnation from among the eighty bishops of France.
The treasury was managed by two chamberlains; and every five years the Paduans sent one of their nobles to reside as nuncio in Venice, and to watch the interests of his native town.
De Peiresc, who recommended him to Cardinal Francesco Barberini, papal nuncio and the possessor of the most important private library in Rome.
While the resolute papal nuncio of Worms, Aleander was indefatigable in his efforts to induce the 1521.
" What my forefathers established at the council of Constance and other councils it is my privilege to maintain," he exclaims. Although, to Aleander's chagrin, the emperor consented to summon Luther to Worms, where he received a species of ovation, Charles readily approved the edict drafted by the papal nuncio, in which Luther is accused of having " brought together all previous heresies in one stinking mass," rejecting all law, teaching a life wholly brutish, and urging the lay people to bathe their hands in the blood of priests.
For example, George of Saxony viewed Aleander, the pope's nuncio, with almost as much suspicion as he did Luther himself.
Denmark had suffered from all the abuses of papal provisions, and the nuncio of Leo X.
In 1895 a case of clerical interference in the internal affairs of Hungary by the nuncio Agliardi aroused a strong protest in the Hungarian parliament, and consequent differences between Banffy, the Hungarian minister, and the minister for foreign affairs led to Kaln6ky's resignation.
In 1646 Dublin was besieged, but without success, by the Irish army of 16,000 foot and 1600 horse, under the guidance of the Pope's nuncio Rinuccini and others, banded together "to restore and establish in Ireland the exercise of the Roman Catholic religion."
The next pope, Paul V., created him archbishop of Rhodes in 1607, and appointed him as nuncio to Flanders and afterwards to France; on his return to Rome in 1621 he was created cardinal and entrusted by Louis XIII.
He was presented to two canonries in the churches of St John Lateran and Sta Maria Maggiore, although he had only taken the minor orders, and had never been consecrated priest; he negotiated the treaty of Turin between France and Savoy in 1632, became vice-legate at Avignon in 1634, and nuncio at the court of France from 1634 to 1636.
How clearly he read the causes of religious decadence, how deeply he himself was convinced of the need of trenchant reform, is best shown by his instructions to Chieregati, his nuncio to Germany, in which he laid the axe to the root of the tree with unheard-of freedom.
As nuncio in Brussels he had become acquainted with the trans-Alpine world, and had been initiated into the working of the machinery of modern politics and modern parliamentary government.
His own honorarium as author consisted of 200 copies, of which, however, he had to give away many to friends, to the king, the principal courtiers, the papal nuncio, &c. What remained he sold for his own profit at the price of a crown each, but the sale did not recoup him his outlay.
He studied at Bologna, Florence and Rome, and by his learning attracted the patronage of Alexander Farnese, who, as Pope Paul III., made him nuncio to Florence, where he received the honour of being elected a member of the celebrated academy, and then to Naples, where his oratorical ability brought him considerable success.
The government appealed to the pope, but the Holy See declined to take any action, and so great was the embitterment that the Belgian minister at the Vatican and the papal nuncio at Brussels were recalled, and in 1880 the clergy refused to associate themselves with the fetes of the national jubilee.
He became governor of Bologna, archbishop of Rossano, and was long nuncio to Spain.
In 1601 he was recommended by the Venetian senate for the small bishopric of Caorle, but the papal nuncio, who wished to obtain it for a protégé of his own, informed the pope that Sarpi denied the immortality of the soul, and had controverted the authority of Aristotle.
The right of the secular tribunals to take cognizance of the offences of ecclesiastics had been asserted in two remarkable cases; and the scope of two ancient laws of the city of Venice, forbidding the foundation of churches or ecclesiastical congregations without the consent of the state, and the acquisition of property by priests or religious bodies, had been extended over the entire territory of the republic. In January 1606 the papal nuncio delivered a brief demanding the unconditional submission of the Venetians.
He had long been archbishop of Florence and nuncio to Tuscany; and was entirely pro-French in his sympathies.
The interests of the town were watched at the ducal palace by a nuncio and a solicitor; and this constitution remained in force till the fall of the republic.
He filled the offices of apostolic vicar of Avignon, legate at the council of Trent, nuncio to Venice, and president of the Inquisition.
Before becoming pope, on the 29th of April 1670 he had been auditor in Poland, governor of Ancona, and nuncio in Naples.
Here he became the friend and favourite of Cardinal Rampolla who, on being sent in 1883 as papal nuncio to Madrid, took Mgr.
The king maintained a vacillating attitude, influenced now by the threats of the Bohemians, now by the advice of the papal nuncio, who had followed him to Prague.
With diplomatic missions; he was nuncio (1536) to Ferdinand, king of the Romans, and legate to the diet of Spires (1542) having successfully resisted the transfer of the diet to Hagenau on account of the plague (1J40).
Julius III., at the instance of the duke of Milan, gave him (1553) the rich see of Novara (which lie resigned in 1560 for the see of Albano) and sent him as nuncio to the diet of Augsburg (1555), from which he was immediately recalled by the death of Julius (March 23).