The next geological formation which is represented is the Eocene, consisting of nummulitic limestone, sandstone and schist.
It was after the Eocene period that the main part of the elevation of the Himalayas took place, as is shown by the occurrence of nummulitic limestone at a height of 20,000 ft.
Nummulitic limestone (Eocene) overlies the Cretaceous in Philistia, and north of Lebanon Eocene and Miocene deposits cover the greater part of the country.
Eocene nummulitic beds occur, but the deposits are mostly of Miocene age.
The Eocene beds are nummulitic. There is a lacustrine group which has usually been placed in the Lower Eocene, but the discovery of Anthracotherium magnum in the interbedded lignites proves it to be Oligocene, in part at least.
Nummulitic limestone occurs in the south-east.
Nummulitic limestones of Persia; Muscat series; and Bahrein series.
In some of the islands nummulitic limestone (Eocene) occurs.
In Luzon trachytic tuffs are sometimes interstratified with nummulitic limestone, thus showing that the eruptions had already begun in the Eocene period.
The overlying Tertiary series includes nummulitic beds and valuable seams of coal.
The Spiti shales are succeeded conformably by Cretaceous beds (Gieumal sandstone below and Chikkim limestone above), and these are followed without a break by Nummulitic beds of Eocene age, much disturbed and altered by intrusions of gabbro and syenite.
Thus, in the Spiti area at least, there appears to have been continuous deposition of marine beds from the Permian Productus shales to the Eocene Nummulitic formation.
The next succeeding deposit is a sandstone, often highly inclined, which rests unconformably upon the Nummulitic beds and resembles the Lower Siwaliks of the SubHimalaya (Pliocene) but which as yet has yielded no fossils of any kind.
From the absence of any well-marked unconformity it is evident that in the northern part of the Himalayan belt, at least in the Spiti area, there can have been no post-Archaean folding of any magnitude until after the deposition of the Nummulitic beds, and that the folding was completed before the later Tertiaries of Hundes were laid down.
= Nummulitic; n=Older 'VCRs of Himalayas 'Scale.
The mass of the mountain is composed of nummulitic limestone.