Silver coins of Carthaea and Coressia have been found dating from the 6th century B.C.
NUMISMATICS and articles in the Numismatische Zeitschrift and Revue numismatique (e.g.
On coins, see article NUMISMATICS, and Dieudonne, Mélanges numism.
20-38; see also SICILY: History, and SYRACUSE; for his coins see NUMISMATICS: Sicily.
Muller, Numismatique d'Alexandre le Grand (1855); also Numismatics: § I.
Of Macedon on his conquest of the Bisaltae adopted the native coinage, merely placing on it his own name (see, further, Numismatics: Greek, §§ Thrace and Macedonia).
Numismatics, section Greek, §" Arcadia."
He was interested too in numismatics, and his letters on Arabic coinage (in Eichhorn's Repertorium, vols.
He also wrote on the trade of Carthage, on Pytheas of Marseilles, the geographer, and two important works on numismatics (La Numismatique du moyen age, Paris, 2 vols., 1835; Etudes numislnatiques, Brussels, 1840).
Numismatics: Greek § Euboea.
NUMISMATICS: Greek, §" Epirus."
Besides a number of archaeological works, especially in the department of numismatics, he published a compilation from the Arabic, Persian and Turkish, entitled Paroles remarquables, bons mots et maximes des orientaux (1694), and a translation from an Arabic manuscript, De l'origine et du progres du café (1699).
(9th ed.) on Egypt, Hieroglyphics and Numismatics, and considerable portions have been retained in the present edition, even though later research has been active in his sphere of work; he also wrote for Smith's Dictionary of the Bible, and published several volumes dealing with his special subjects.
In this period, too, begins the fine series of Sicilian coins (see Numismatics: Sicily).
One mass of Greek and Roman erudition, including history and metaphysics, law and science, civic institutions and the art of war, mythology and magistracies, metrical systems and oratory, agriculture and astronomy, domestic manners and religious rites, grammar and philology, biography and numismatics, formed the miscellaneous subject-matter of this so-styled rhetoric. Notes taken at these lectures supplied young scholars with hints for further exploration; and a certain tradition of treating antique authors for the display of general learning, as well as for the elucidation of their texts, came into vogue, which has determined the method of scholarship for the last three centuries in Europe.
Head, Historia numorum (Oxford, 188 7), pp. 345-34 6; also NUMISMATICS, section Greek, " Patrae, Sicyon."
Numismatics by the Due de Luynes, Numismatique et inscriptions cypriotes (Paris, 1852); R.
For the literature dealing with the Parthian Empire and numismatics, see PARTHIA, under which heading will be found a complete list of the kings, so far as we are able to reconstitute them.
It is not the object of this article to deal further with the history of antique seals (see Numismatics; also Gems, Jewelry and Ring), but to give some account of European seals of the middle ages, when the revival of their use for the authentication of documents resulted in their universal employment among all classes of society.
But the real auxiliary sciences to history are those which deal with those traces of the past that still exist, the science of language (philology), of writing (palaeography), of documents (diplomatic), of seals (sphragistics), of coins (numismatics), of weights and measures, and archaeology in the widest sense of the word.
(See also NUMISMATICS.) See articles in Ency.
Head, Historia numorum (Oxford, 1887), pp. 5 1 3-5 1 5, and NUMISMATICS: Greek.