The numerals in use were limited.
In their own language they usually have only three numerals, viz.
Among the more civilized, however, the Malay numerals up to ten are adopted by the Sakai.
A convenient way of describing any type of engine is by means of numerals indicating the number of wheels - (I) in the group of wheels supporting the leading or chimney end, (2) in the group of coupled wheels, and (3) in the group supporting the trailing end of the engine.
A great advance was made by Dalton, who, besides introducing simpler symbols, regarded the symbol as representing not only the element or compound but also one atom of that element or compound; in other words, his symbol denoted equivalent weights.4 This system, which permitted the correct representation of molecular composition, was adopted by Berzelius in 1814, who, having replaced the geometric signs of Dalton by the initial letter (or letters) of the Latin names of the elements, represented a compound by placing a plus sign between the symbols of its components, and the number of atoms of each component (except in the case of only one atom) by placing Arabic numerals before the symbols; for example, copper oxide was Cu +0, sulphur trioxide S+30.
The valency of an element is usually expressed by dashes or Roman numerals placed on the right of its symbol, thus: H', O", B"', C I ", P", mow; but in constructing graphic formulae the symbols of the elements are written with as many lines attached to each symbol as the element which it represents has units of affinity.
Letters and Roman numerals as in fig.
We shall, therefore, ignoring the ocular somite, speak of the first, second, third, fourth, fifth and sixth legbearing somites of the prosoma, and indicate the appendages by the Roman numerals, I, II, III, IV, V, VI, and whilst ignoring the praegenital somite we shall speak of the first, second, third, &c., somite of the mesosoma or opisthosoma (united mesosoma and metasoma) and indicate them by the Arabic numerals.
The Arabic numerals indicate the segments of the legs.
The Roman numerals indicate the body somites and the two figures are adjusted for comparison.
In the bibliography at the close of this article (referred to by leaded arabic numerals in brackets throughout these pages), the titles of works are given which contain detailed information as to the genera and species of each order or sub-order, their geographical distribution and their habits and economy so far as they have been ascertained.
Other characteristic features are the use of the singular substantive after numerals, and adjectives of quantity, e.g.
The Arabians more closely resembled the Hindus than the Greeks in the choice of studies; their philosophers blended speculative dissertations with the more progressive study of medicine; their mathematicians neglected the subtleties of the conic sections and Diophantine analysis, and applied themselves more particularly to perfect the system of numerals, arithmetic and astronomy.
It is noteworthy that in this book Vincent shows a knowledge of the Arabic numerals, though he does not call them by this name.
This does not mean, what is often alleged, that nobody before him had ever thought of choosing symbols different from numerals, such as the letters of the alphabet, to denote the quantities of arithmetic, but that he made a general custom of what until his time had been only an exceptional attempt.
The Aztec numerals, which were vigesimal or reckoned by scores, were depicted by dots or circles up to 20, which was represented by a flag, 400 (a score of scores) by a feather, and 8000 (a score of scores of scores) by a purse; but for convenience these symbols might be halved and quartered, so that 534 might be shown by one feather, one quarter of a feather, one flag, one-half of a flag, and four dots.
In The Tables Of The Church Calendar The Epacts Are Usually Printed In Roman Numerals, Excepting The Last, Which Is Designated By An Asterisk (*), Used As An Indefinite Symbol To Denote 30 Or O, And 25, Which In The Last Eight Columns Is Expressed In Arabic Characters, For A Reason That Will Immediately Be Explained.
Gunpowder, the compass, the Arabic numerals and paper, are nowhere spoken of as discoveries, and yet they must have wrought a total change in war, in navigation, in science, and in education.
In scientific and astrological works, the numerals, as, in Sanskrit, are expressed by symbolical words.
For instance, 237578 w was printed @ 5070 8 3D; and the fact that Stevinus meant those encircled numerals to denote mere exponents is evident from his employing the very same sign for powers of algebraic quantities, e.g.
The differentiation of the Roman alphabet from the Greek is brought about (a) by utilizing the digamma for the unvoiced labio dental spirant F; (b) by dropping out the aspirates 0, (I), in the Chalcidian alphabet, whence the Roman is derived) from the alphabet proper and employing them on l as numerals, 0 'y' ?
Such words as hand, hands, foot, man, &c., are used as numerals signifying 5, 10, 15, 20, &c., among many savage and barbaric peoples; thus Polynesian lima, i.e.
" one man," means 20, &c., &c. The existence of such expressions demonstrates that the people who use them had originally no spoken names for these numbers, but once merely counted them by gesture on their fingers and toes in low savage fashion, till they obtained higher numerals by the inventive process of describing in words these counting-gestures.
The missionaries, who have reduced the language to writing (Gospel of St Luke, London, 1881), assert that it contains no fewer than 30,000 words, although the numerals stop at five, already a compound form, and although the same word expresses both hand and finger; but it appears that a large number of the words included in this total are compounds.
The numerals indicate the order of development of the mesenteries.
Roman Numerals 2.4 16.
Although the Roman numerals are no longer in use for representing cardinal numbers, except in certain special cases (e.g.
To see this, we may represent ordinal numbers by the ordinary numerals I, 2, 3,..
The Papuan numerals extend usually to 5 only.
There are several dialects, the construction resembling Fijian, as in the pronominal suffixes in singular, triad and plural; the numerals, however, are Polynesian in character.