Green, however, continued to edit it in the Calhoun interest until 1835, and gave vigorous support to that leader's nullification views.
The tariff of 1828 aroused bitter opposition in South Carolina, and called from Vice-President Calhoun the statement of the doctrine of nullification which was adopted by the South Carolina legislature at the close of the year and is known as the South Carolina Exposition.
Webster's brief reply drew from Hayne a second speech, in which he entered into a full exposition of the doctrine of nullification, and the important part of Webster's second reply to Hayne on the 26th and 27th of January is a masterly exposition of the Constitution as in his opinion it had come to be after a development of more than forty years.
He showed the revolutionary and unpractical character of any doctrine such as nullification based on the assumption that the general government was the agent of the state legislatures.
President Jackson responded with a proclamation denying the right of nullification, and asked Congress for authority to collect the revenue in South Carolina by force if necessary.
In 1836 he was elected to the Georgia House of Representatives after a campaign in which he was vigorously opposed because he had attacked the doctrine of nullification, and because he had opposed all extra-legal steps against the abolitionists.
His declarations during the campaign were vague regarding the tariff and unfavourable to the United States Bank and to nullification, but he had already somewhat placated the South by denying the right of Congress to abolish slavery in the District of Columbia without the consent of the slave states.
The nullification movement led in 1833 to the well-known compromise, by which the rates of duty as established by the Act of 1832 were to be gradually reduced, reaching in 1842 a general level of 20 per cent.
He returned to Accomack county, Va., in 1830, and served in the National House of Representatives in 1833-1837 as an anti-nullification Democrat, but broke with the party on the withdrawal of the deposits from the United States Bank, and was re-elected to Congress in 1837, 1839 and 1841 as a Whig, and in 1843 as a Tyler Democrat.
Until 1832 there was only one party in the state, the Democratic, but the question of nullification caused a division that year into the (Jackson) Democratic party and the State's Rights (Calhoun Democratic) party; about the same time, also, there arose, chiefly in those counties where the proportion of slaves to freemen was greater and the freemen were most aristocratic, the Whig party.
Then the Troup faction under the name of States Rights party, endorsed the nullification policy of South Carolina, while the Clarke faction, calling itself a Union party, opposed South Carolina's conduct, but on the grounds of expediency rather than of principle.
On account, however, of its opposition to President Jackson's attitude toward nullification, the States Rights party affiliated with thenew Whig party, which represented the national feeling in the South, while the Union party was merged into the Democratic party, which emphasized the sovereignty of the states.
No particulars of their life have been made public. In 1854 his wife left him, obtained a nullification of the marriage under Scots law, and ultimately became the wife of John Everett Millais.
His hostility to a high tariff policy, however, did not prevent him from condemning the South Carolina ordinance of nullification; and in the presidential election of 1832 he supported Andrew Jackson, to whose political principles and methods, as to those of his advisers, he was invincibly opposed, as the "least objectionable" of the various candidates..
In1832-1833the "Union" party of South Carolina was composed of those who rejected nullification, holding to secession as the only remedy; and from 1830 to 1860 certain radical abolitionists advocated a division of the Union.
See also STATE RIGHTS, NULLIFICATION, and CONFEDERATE STATES.
It was due to his dependence on Charles V., rather than to any conscientious scruples, that Clement evaded Henry VIII.'s demand for the nullification of his marriage with Catherine of Aragon, and so brought about the breach between England and Rome.
He vigorously opposed the tariff of 1832, was a member of the South Carolina Nullification Convention of November 1832, and reported the ordinance of nullification passed by that body on the 24th of November.
He became prominent, politically, during the nullification excitement of 1832-1833, as a vigorous opponent of nullification, and from 1836 to 1845 he sat in the United States Senate as a Unionist Democrat.
He was a Liberal Democrat, and advised the calling of a constitutional convention as preferable to nullification or secession.
It is, however, unquestionably true, that as a startling protest against measures" to silence,"in Jefferson's words," by force and not by reason the complaints or criticisms, just or unjust, of our citizens against the conduct of our agents,"they served, in this respect, a useful purpose; and as a counterblast against Hamiltonian principles of centralization they were probably, at that moment, very salutary; while even as pieces of constitutional interpretation it is to be remembered that they did not contemplate nullification by any single state, and, moreover, are not to be judged by constitutional principles established later by courts and war.
He sided with President Jackson on the question of nullification; was an efficient supporter of President Polk's administration during the Mexican War; and was an ardent advocate of slavery extension into the Territories, but when the Compromise of 1850 had been agreed upon he became its staunch supporter as a Union Democrat, and on that issue was elected governor of Georgia by a large majority.
As a remedy for such a breach of compact the state might resort to nullification, or, as a last resort, to secession from the Union.
Congress passed an act gradually reducing the duties to a revenue basis, and South Carolina repealed her nullification measures.
His speech in behalf of the measure was for years a protection text-book; but the measure itself reduced the revenue so little and provoked such serious threats of nullification and secession in South Carolina, that, to prevent bloodshed and to forestall a free trade measure from the next Congress, Clay brought forward in 1833 a compromise gradually reducing the tariff rates to an average of 20%.
He sided with the president in his nullification controversy with South Carolina and in his removal of the Indians from Georgia, but not in his withdrawal of the government deposits from the United States Bank.
In this last position he was one of the most trusted advisers of the president, for whom he prepared a number of state papers, the most important being the famous anti-nullification proclamation of the 10th of December 1832.
In 1832 there was a majority from each section in favour of Nullification, and the legislature called the famous Nullification Convention, which met at Charleston the 19th of November, and five days later passed the Ordinance of Nullification declaring that certain acts of Congress imposing import duties " are unauthorized by the Constitution of the United States and violate the true meaning and intent thereof, and are null and void and no law, nor binding upon this state, its officers or citizens."
Houston, Critical Study of Nullification in South Carolina (New York, 1896), is a concise, scholarly work.