As before, only true ring nuclei, and not internal anhydrides of aliphatic compounds, will be mentioned.
Nuclei are everywhere present.
Here we meet with a great diversity of types: oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur and other elements may, in addition to carbon, combine together in a great number of arrangements to form cyclic nuclei, which exhibit characters closely resembling open-chain compounds in so far as they yield substitution derivatives, and behave as compound radicals.
This is a necessary consequence of the fusion of two nuclei in fertilization, unless the chromosomes are to be doubled at each generation.
The union of the germ nuclei has now been observed in all the main groups of Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, Ferns, Mosses, Algae and Fungi, and presents a striking resemblance in all.
The nuclei of the original cells persist in the protoplasmic membrane.
Here structures have been observed which resemble nuclei in some of their characteristics.
The segmentation of the fertilized nucleus results in the formation of a number of nuclei which arrange themselves around the periphery of the egg and, the protoplasm surrounding them becoming constricted, a blastoderm or layer of cells, enclosing the central yolk, is formed.
The following diagrams illustrate these statements: - C ` H C OH HC /CH HC CH HC,/CH 'N/ HC CH CH CH From the benzene nucleus we can derive other aromatic nuclei, graphically represented by fusing two or more hexagons along common sides.
The cells in which the fungoid organism is vigorously flourishing are exceedingly active, showing large size, brilliant nuclei, protoplasm and vacuole, all of which give signs of iptense metabolic activity.
B~it the staining reactions of nuclei may vary at different stages of their development; and it i~ probable that there is no method of staining which differentiates with certainty the various morphological constituents of the nucleus.
The second ~r hoinotype division which immediately follows reverts to the normal type except that the already split chromosomes at once separate to form the daughter nuclei without the intervention of a resting stage.
In the higher plants, after the separation of the daughter nuclei, minute granular swellingc appear, in the equatorial region, on the connecting fibres which still persist between the two nuclei, to form what is called the cell-plate.
In Fucus and allied forms the spindle-fibres between the daughter nuclei disappear early and the new cell-wall is formed in the cytoplasm.
Reduction in size is due to A, Two vermiform nuclei in the emthe absence of cytoplasm, bryo sac; one approaching the eggwhich is in some cases so nucleus, the other uniting with the 11 ~ ~h ~h upper polar nucleus.
In plants with multinucleate cells, such as Albugo, Peronospora and Vaucheria, it is usually a uninucleate cell differentiated by separation of the nuclei from a multinucleate cell, but in Albugo bliti it is multinucleate, and in Sphaero plea it may contain more than one nucleus.
In the first, a cleavage follows each nuclear division; in the second, the nuclei multiply by division a number of times, and then the ovum divides into as many blastomeres as there are nuclei present.
The protoplasm of a living cell con.sists of a semifluid granular substance, called the cytoplasm, one or more nuclei, and sometimes centrosomes and plastids.
1.Reconstruction of the daughter nuclei of Phaseolus.
In a few cases both among the higher and the lower plants, of which the formation of spores in the ascus is a typical example, new cells are formed by the aggregation of portions of the cytoplasm around the nuclei which become delimited from the rest of the cell iontents by a membrane.
Complete sexual differenti- C, Fusion of the germ nuclei in the ation the egg-cell is quies- egg-cell.
Fertilization is effected by the union of two nuclei in all those cases which have been carefully investigated.
The sieve tubes contain a thin lining layer of protoplasm on their walls, but no nuclei, and the cell sap contains albuminous substances which are coagulable by heat.
(1898); Sargant, The Formation of the Sexual Nuclei in Liiium Martagon, I.
Deferring the detailed discussion of cyclic or ringed hydrocarbons, a correlation of the various types or classes of compounds which may be derived from hydrocarbon nuclei will now be given.
It may be noticed here that cyclic nuclei can only contain the groups > CH 2.
True ring systems, which possess the characters of organic nuclei, do not come into existence in threeand four-membered rings, their first appearance being in penta-atomic rings.
2, L), a nucleolus appears, a nuclear membrane is formed, and daughter nuclei are thus constituted which possess the same structure and staining reactions as the mother nucleus.
7, A) nuclei, which may be regarded as physiologically equivalent to a sexual fusion.
Doncaster (1906-1907) on the eggs of sawflies, the number of chromosomes is not reduced in parthenogenetic egg-nuclei, while, in eggs capable of fertilization, the usual reduction-divisions occur.
They possess a delicate Laticiferous layer of protoplasm, with numerous small nuclei lining Tissue the walls, while the interior of the tube (corresponding with the cell-vacuole) contains a fluid called latex, consisting of an emulsion of fine granules and drops of very various substances suspended in a watery medium in which various other substances (salts, sugars, rubber-producers, tannins, alkaloids and various enzymes) are dissolved.
The cells concerned, like all secreting organs, have abundant protoplasm with large nuclei, and sometimes, in addition, part of the cell-wall is modified as a filter.
The food so absorbed passes to the outer cortical mycellum, and from this tc the inner hyphae, which appear to be the organs of the interchangi of substance, for they are attracted to the neighborhood of thi nuclei of the cells, which they enter, and iii which they form agglom erations of interwoven filaments.
Bamberger's observations on reduced quinoline derivatives point to the same conclusion, that condensed nuclei are not benzenoid, but possess an individual character, which breaks down, however, when the molecule is reduced.
During recent years an immense number of ringed or cyclic compounds have been discovered, which exhibit individual characters more closely resembling benzene, naphthalene, &c. than purely aliphatic substances, inasmuch as in general they contain double linkages, yet withstand oxidation, and behave as nuclei, forming derivatives in much the same way as benzene.
Most of the simple ring systems which contain two adjacent carbon atoms may suffer fusion with any other ring (also containing two adjacent carbon atoms) with the production of nuclei of greater complexity.
Such condensed nuclei are, in many cases, more readily obtained than the parent nucleus.
The more important types are derived from aromatic nuclei, benzene, naphthalene, &c.; the ortho-di-derivatives of the first named, lending themselves particularly to the formation of condensed nuclei.
Thus ortho-phenylene diamine yields the following products: N H N ./`N; Xn NZ In some cases oxidation of condensed benzenoid-heterocyclic nuclei results in the rupture of the heterocyclic ring with the formation of a benzene dicarboxylic acid; but if the aromatic nucleus be weakened by the introduction of an amino group, then it is the benzenoid nucleus which is destroyed and a dicarboxylic acid of the heterocyclic ring system obtained.
Rosenberg (1909) adduces evidence fox the existence of chromosomes or prochromosomes in resting nuclei in a large number of plants, but most observers consider that the chromosomes during the resting stage become completely resolved into a nuclear network in which no trace of the original chromosomes can be seen.
The Nuclei of the Lower Plants.It is only in comparatively recent times that it has been possible to determine with any degree of certainty that the minute deeply stainable bodies described more especially by Schmitz (1879) in many Algae and Fungi could be regarded as true nuclei.
The two nuclei are successively divided from the egg nucleus in the usual way, but they frequently become absorbed in the peripheral protoplasm instead of being extruded from the egg-cell altogether.
It appears that in parthenogenetic eggs two polar nuclei are formed.
Within the yolk the nuclei of some "yolk cells" can be distinguished.
In the egg of these insects a small number of nuclei are formed by the division of the nucleus, and each of these nuclei originates by division the cell-layers of a separate embryo.
Dumas went no further that thus epitomizing his observations; and the next development was made in 1836 by Auguste Laurent, who, having amplified and discussed the applicability of Dumas' views, promulgated his Nucleus Theory, which assumed the existence of " original nuclei or radicals " (radicaux or noyaux fondamentaux) composed of carbon and hydrogen, and " derived nuclei " (radicaux or noyaux derives) formed from the original nuclei by the substitution of hydrogen or the addition of other elements, and having properties closely related to the primary nuclei.
By fusing two nuclei we obtain the formula of naphthalene, C 1 oH 8; by fusing three, the hydrocarbons anthracene and phenanthrene, C14H10; by fusing four, chrysene, C18H12, and possibly pyrene, C16H1n; by fusing five, picene, C22 H 14.
Other hydrocarbon nuclei generally classed as aromatic in character result from the union of two or more benzene nuclei joined by one or two valencies with polymethylene or oxidized polymethylene rings; instances of such nuclei are indene, hydrindene, fluorene, and fluoranthene.
From these nuclei an immense number of derivatives may be obtained, for the hydrogen atoms may be substituted by any of the radicals discussed in the preceding section on the classification of organic compounds.
Systems which are generally unsaturated compounds, often of considerable stability, and behave as nuclei; these compounds constitute a well-individualized class exhibiting closer affinities to benzenoid substances than to the open-chain series.
These consist of enormous cells with nuclei so large as to be in some cases just visible to the naked eye.
+1~ ii 1n a, Antipodal cell; sp, polar nuclei; eing e sma er.