In Nubia, owing to the poverty of the country and its scanty population, the proportion of monuments surviving is infinitely greater than in Egypt.
Peoples of three distinct stocks inhabit the country - the comparatively recent Semitic Arab intruders, mainly in Upper Nubia, the Beja (?
A remnant of the Mamelukes fled to Nubia, and a tranquillity was restored to Egypt to which it had long been unaccustomed.
In the 7th century the Arabs who had conquered Egypt penetrated into Lower Nubia, where the two Jawabareh and Al-Gharbiya tribes became powerful, and amalgamated with the Nubas of that district.
Burckhardt, Travels in Nubia, e5fc. (London, 1819); G.
Fn4 In a Spanish work of about the same date, by an anonymous Franciscan, we are told that the emperor called "Abdeselib, which means servant of the Cross," is a protector of Preste Juan, who is the patriarch of Nubia and Ethiopia, and is lord of many great lands, and many cities of Christians, though they be black as "Catalani."
The Nile valley afforded a passage by ship or on foot into Nubia, where, however, little wealth was to be sought, though gold and rarities from the Sudan, such as ivory and ebony, came that way and an armed raid could yield a good spoil in slaves and cattle.
By a second firman of the same date Mehemet Ali was invested with the government of Nubia, Darfur, Khordofan and Sennaar, with their dependencies.
The inscriptions show that they belonged to frontier-prefects whose expeditions into Nubia, &c., are recorded in them.
The temple of Isis was the chief sanctuary of the Dodecaschoenus, the portion of Lower Nubia generally held by the Ptolemies and Romans.
453 Maximinus, the general of the emperor Marcian, after inflicting a severe defeat on the Nobatae and Blemmyes who were settled in Lower Nubia, and thence raided Upper Egypt, made peace on terms which included permission for these heathen tribes to visit the temple and even to borrow the image of Isis on certain occasions.
His archaeological work included the investigation of lake dwellings and other prehistoric structures; he went with Schliemann to Troy in 1879, fruits of the expedition being two books, ZurLandeskunde der Troas (1880) and Alt-trojanische Gr p ber and Schad (1882); in 1881 he visited the Caucasus, and on his return published Das Graberfeld von Koban im Lande der Osseten; and in 1888 he accompanied Schliemann to Egypt, Nubia and the Peloponnese.
Sennar, lying between Nubia and Abyssinia, was in ancient times under Egyptian or Ethiopian influence and its inhabitants appear to have embraced Christianity at an early period.
Interesting conclusions as to the early ethnology of Egypt have been derived from the systematic examination of the necropolises of Nubia, necessitated by the heightening of the Aswan dam, as a consequence of which the northern portion of the valley S.
Dr. Reisner, working for Boston, was not held up by the war, but continued his excavations in the Giza pyramid field and in Nubia, making good finds in both places.
Other work of importance in Nubia immediately before the war was that of Mr. Randall Maclver and Mr. Woolley for the Eckley B.
In 1819 he returned to England, and published in the following year an account of his travels and discoveries entitled Narrative of the Operations and Recent Discoveries within the Pyramids, Temples, Tombs and Excavations in Egypt and Nubia, &c. He also exhibited during 1820-1821 facsimiles of the tomb of Seti I.
Breasted, "The Monuments of Sudanese Nubia," in American Journal of Semitic Languages (October 1908), and the work of E.
Maclver's researches in northern Nubia, begun in 1907, will be found under Sudan: Anglo-Egyptian.
For the period between the rise of Islam and the beginning of the modern history of Abyssinia there are a few notices in Arabic writers; so we have a notice of a war between Ethiopia and Nubia about 687 (C. C. Rossini in Giorn.
Nubia, however, has no strictly defined limits, and is little more than a geographical expression.
From Nuba, the Arabic form of the name of this people, comes the modern Nubia, a term about the precise meaning of which no two writers are in accord.
The two districts roughly correspond to the conventional divisions of Upper and Lower Nubia respectively.
Except along the narrow valley of the Nile only the southernmost portion of Nubia contains arable land.
Politically the whole of Nubia is now included either in Egypt or the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, and has no administrative existence.
At Abu-Simbel, in Nubia, give conclusive proof that the art of writing was widely disseminated among the Greeks at least three centuries:before the age of Alexander.
Perhaps the earliest known instance of his prominent appearance of large size in the sculptures of the temples is under Tahraka, at Jebel Barkal, Nubia, at the beginning of the 7th century B.C. As the protector of children and others he is the enemy of noxious beasts, such as lions, crocodiles, serpents and scorpions.
Abu Salih records (12th century) that the patriarch used always to send letters twice a year to the kings of Abyssinia and Nubia, till Al Hakim stopped the practice.
The Nubian goat, which is met with in Nubia, Upper Egypt and Abyssinia, differs greatly in appearance from those previously described.
Elliott Smith, A Contribution to the Study of Mummification in Egypt (Cairo, 1906); The Archaeological Survey of Nubia Bulletins (Cairo, 1908 seq.); Dr Lortet and M.
194 seq., translated in Burckhardt's Travels in Nubia, app. iii.).
The existence of native Christian states in Nubia hindered for some centuries the spread of Islam in the eastern Sudan, and throughout the country some tribes have remained pagan.
From Suez to the Strait of Bab el-Mandeb in a nearly straight line, and separating the coasts of Arabia from those of Egypt, Nubia and Abyssinia.
The Wahhabi War, indeed, dragged on till 1818, when Ibrahim (q.v.), the pasha's son, who in 1816 had driven the remnant of the Mamelukes into Nubia, brought it to an end.
Thoth is found on the earliest monuments symbolized by an ibis (Ibis aethio pica, still not uncommon in Nubia), which bird was sacred to him.
He made Nubia tributar~,t, therein extending Moslem arms farther south than they had been extended by any previous sultan.
Much of Malik al-N~irs third administration was spent in raids into Nubia, where he endeavoured to set up a creature of his own as sovereign, in attempts at bringing the Bedouins of south-eastern Egypt into subordination, and in persecuting the Nosairis, whose heresy became formidable about this time.
As their numbers thinned, they endeavoured to maintain their little power by training some hundreds of blacks; but again, on the approach of Ismail, another son of the pasha of Egypt, sent with an army in 1820 to subdue Nubia and Sennar, some returned to Egypt and settled in Cairo, while the rest, amounting to about 100 persons, fled in dispersed parties to the countries adjacent to Senngr.
Nubia at once submitted, the Shagia Arabs immediately beyond the province of Dongola were worsted, the remnant of the Mamelukes dispersed, and Sennr reduced without a battle.
In his ninth year he turned his attention to the gold mines in the eastern desert of Nubia and improved the road thither.
Succeeded at an early age Ratneses and reigned sixty-seven years, during which he finished much that was begun by Seti and filled all Egypt and Nubia with his own monuments, some of them beautiful, but most, necessarily entrusted to inferior workmen, of coarse execution.
Sheshonk secured Thebes, making one of his sons high priest of Ammon, and whereas Solomon appears to have dealt with a king of Egypt on something like an equal footing, Sheshonk re-established Egyptian rule in Palestine and Nubia, and his expedition in the fifth year of Rehoboam subdued Israel as well as Judah, to judge by the list of city names which he inscribed on the wall of the temple of Karnak.