In the case of muscle, if the available nourishment be sufficient, and if the power of assimilation of the muscle cells remain unimpaired, its bulk increases, that is to say, it becomes hypertrophied.
It does not supply the place of organic manures, but only renders that which is present available for the nourishment of the plants.
PEMMICAN, a North American Indian (Cree) word for a meat prepared in such a way as to contain the greatest amount of nourishment in the most compact form.
The number of years before flowering occurs depends on the vigour of the individual, the richness of the soil and the climate; during these years the plant is storing in its fleshy leaves the nourishment required for the effort of flowering.
It is often resorted to as a means of restoring fertility in plants which have become over rank from an excess of nourishment in the soil, or sterile from want of it.
Others are biennials producing a number of leaves on a very short stem in the first year, and in the second sending up a flowering shoot at the expense of the nourishment stored in the thick tap-root during the previous season.
Ten years before, John Worlidge, one of his correspondents, and the author of the Systema Agriculturae (1669), observes, " Sheep fatten very well on turnips, which prove an excellent nourishment for them in hard winters when fodder is scarce; for they will not only eat the greens, but feed on the roots in the ground, and scoop them hollow even to the very skin.
Discussions and questions of that kind, which are like the question of how to get the greatest gratification from one's dinner, did not then and do not now exist for those for whom the purpose of a dinner is the nourishment it affords; and the purpose of marriage is the family.
For they cut the cheeks of the males with a sword, so that before they receive the nourishment of milk they must learn to endure wounds.
The greater number of them are epiphytes or plants that grow on others without absorbing nourishment from them, and heat and moisture afford all or nearly all the nourishment they require.
If the purpose of food is nourishment and the purpose of marriage is the family, the whole question resolves itself into not eating more than one can digest, and not having more wives or husbands than are needed for the family--that is, one wife or one husband.
Even the parched bush provides sufficient nourishment for millions of sheep and goats.
Others again play the part of thieves in the ant society; C. Janet observed a small bristle-tail (Lepismima) to lurk beneath the heads of two Lasius workers, while one passed food to the other, in order to steal the drop of nourishment and to make off with it.
For insects provided with a biting mouth, which take nourishment from the whole leaf, shoot or fruit, the poisonous washes used are chiefly arsenical.
The effect of overwork upon an organ or tissue varies in accordance with (a) the particular organ or tissue concerned, (b) the amount of nourishment conveyed to it, and (c) the power of assimilation possessed by its cells.
He showed that the gaseous constituents of the air contribute largely to the nourishment of plants, and that the leaves are the organs which elaborate the food; the importance of leaves in nutrition had been previously pointed out by Malpighi in a short account of nutrition which forms an appendix to his anatomical work.
The order is well represented in Britain by 18 genera, which include several species of Orchis: Gymnadenia (fragrant orchis), Habenaria (butterfly and frog orchis), Aceras (man orchis), Hermin- ium (musk orchis), Ophrys (bee, spider and fly orchis), Epipactis (Helleborine), Cephalanthera, Neottia (bird's-nest orchis), one of the few saprophytic genera, which have no green leaves, but derive their nourishment from decaying organic matter in the soil, Listens (Tway blade), Spiranthes (lady's tresses), Malaxis (bog-orchis), Liparis (fen-orchis), Corallorhiza (coral root), also a saprophyte, and Cypripedium (lady's slipper), represented by a single species now very rare in limestone districts in the north of England.
Under this system the clover is ploughed up in the autumn, the nitrogen stored up in its roots being left in the soil for the nourishment of the cereal crop. The following summer the wheat crop is harvested, and an opportunity is afforded for extirpating weeds which in the three previous years have received little check.
The parasites, which cling to the intestinal mucous membrane, draw their nourishment from the blood-vessels of their host, and as they are found in hundreds in the body after death, the disorders of digestion, the increasing anaemia and the consequent dropsies and other cachectic symptoms are easily explained.
The resulting pebble and quartz-sand is very unproductive, and supports chiefly a poor underwood and crippled pines with widely spreading roots which seek their nourishment afar.
Hence the two great forms of prose literature which drew their nourishment from the struggles of political life, oratory and contemporary history, were arrested in their development.
NECTAR, in ancient mythology generally coupled with ambrosia, the nourishment of the gods in Homer and in Greek literature generally.
Wickstead neglected his pupil entirely, but Baxter's eager mind found abundant nourishment in the great library at the castle.
The Sicilian race of horses would be good but that it is not prolific, and has degenerated in consequence of insufficient nourishment and overwork.
These last are said to be broken by the old birds to serve as nourishment for the newly-hatched chicks, whose stomachs cannot bear the hard food on which their parents thrive.
The embryo of Gnetum forms an out-growth from the hypocotyl, which serves as a feeder and draws nourishment from the prothallus.
The fine thread-like filaments composing the mycelium of the fungus are embedded in the tissue underneath and around the uredo-sorus, and draw from the host the nourishment required.
Whenever a woman brings forth a male child, she puts his first food on the sword of her husband, and lightly introduces the first auspicium of nourishment into his little mouth with the point of the sword.
The fatty matter, however, it must be borne in mind, is the expression of dissimilation of the actual substance of the proteids of the tissues, not of the splitting up of proteids or other carbonaceous nourishment supplied to them.
Rejecting the old notion that plants derive their nourishment from humus, he taught that they get carbon and nitrogen from the carbon dioxide and ammonia present in the atmosphere, these compounds being returned by them to the atmosphere by the processes of putrefaction and fermentation - which latter he regarded as essentially chemical in nature - while their potash, soda, lime, sulphur, phosphorus, &c., come from the soil.
The amount of nourishment required for this rearing is as follows: hatching to first moult, about 9 lb of leaves of tender growth, equal to 40 to 45 lb ripe leaves; first to second moult, 24 lb, representing roc) lb ripe leaves; second to third moult, 80 lb, representing 240 lb ripe leaves; third to fourth moult, 236 lb, representing 472 lb ripe leaves; fourth moult to mounting, 1430 lb, representing 1540 lb ripe leaves, totalling to about one ton of ripe leaves for a complete rearing.
As a rule they are not formed until the plant has arrived at a certain degree of vigour, or until a sufficient supply of nourishment has been stored in the tissues of the plant.
A good deal of difference of opinion exists as to whether they are the result of arrested growth or of exuberant development, and accordingly whether restricted food or abundant supplies of nourishment are the more necessary for their production.
These coming into contact with the roots of plants during their season of active growth, are utilized as direct nourishment for the vegetation.
The endosperm-nucleus divides rapidly to produce a cellular tissue which fills up the interior of the rapidly-growing embryosac, and forms a tissue, known as endosperm, in which is stored a supply of nourishment for the use later on of the embryo.
The carpogonium germinates forthwith, drawing its nourishment almost wholly from the parent plant.
The medullary rays extend radially from the centre of the tree to the bark at right angles to the grain of the wood, and serve during life to bind the whole together as well as to convey nourishment from one part of the tree to another.
For the cow is the animal which voluntarily yields nourishment to man and aids him in his daily labors, and on it depends the industry of the peasant as contrasted with the wild desert brigand to whom the cow is unknown.
The young (which, as in other marsupials, leave the uterus in an extremely small and imperfect condition) are placed in the pouch as soon as they are born; and to this they resort temporarily for shelter for some time after they are able to run, jump and feed upon the herbage which forms the nourishment of the parent.
During the growth of the ovum nourishment is supplied from the contents of the cells immediately surrounding the egg-cell, as in the development of the ovum of Pinus and other conifers.
Mamma, a teat or breast), the name proposed by the Swedish naturalist Linnaeus for one of the classes, or primary divisions, of vertebrated animals, the members of which are collectively characterized by the presence in the females of special glands secreting milk for the nourishment of the young.
A tapetal layer is derived from the cells surrounding the sporogenous group, and the arrest of a number of the spore-mother-cells further contributes to the nourishment of the remainder, each of which gives rise to four spores.
At the lower end of the albumen, and placed obliquely, is the minute embryo-plant, which derives its nourishment in the first instance from the albumen; this is destined to form the future plant.
Although the factors which determine these phenomena are not clearly understood, it is believed that the appearance of the males is connected with the increasing cold of autumn and the growing scarcity of food, and that the birth of winged females is similarly associated with decrease in the quantity or vitiation of the quality of the nourishment imbibed.
Not to speak of insects which feed upon the pitcher itself, some drop their eggs into the putrescent mass, where their larvae find abundant nourishment, while birds often slit open the pitchers with their beaks and devour the maggots in their turn.
So the text "the myrmekoleon bath perished for that he had no nourishment" set them pondering, and others reproduced their meditations, with the following result: "The Physiologus relates about the ant-lion: his father hath the shape of a lion, his mother that of an ant; the father liveth upon flesh, and the mother upon herbs.
Honey forms the staple nourishment of many ants, some of the workers seeking nectar from flowers, working it up into honey within their stomachs and regurgitating it so as to feed their comrades within the nest, who, in their turn, pass it on to the grubs.
Tropical orchids are mostly epiphytal - that is, they grow upon trees without deriving nourishment from them.
The first volume, Vegetable Staticks (1727), contains an account of numerous experiments in plant-physiology - the loss of water in plants by evaporation, the rate of growth of shoots and leaves, variations in root-force at different times of the day, &c. Considering it very probable that plants draw "through their leaves some part of their nourishment from the air," he undertook experiments to show in "how great a proportion air is wrought into the composition of animal, vegetable and mineral substances"; though this "analysis of the air" did not lead him to any very clear ideas about the composition of the atmosphere, in the course of his inquiries he collected gases over water in vessels separate from those in which they were generated, and thus used what was to all intents and purposes a "pneumatic trough."
The food thus reaches the stomach in large lumps which cannot be readily digested, and either remain there till they decompose and give rise to irritation in the stomach itself, or pass on to the intestine, where digestion is likewise incomplete, and the food is ejected without the proper amount of nourishment having been extracted from it; while at the same time the products of its decomposition may have been absorbed and acted as poisons, giving rise to lassitude, discomfort, headache, or perhaps even to irritability and sleeplessness.
This improvement is due to greater cleanliness, better dwellings, better nourishment, and the increase in the number of doctors.