This range forms, in a measure, a natural boundary between Sweden and Norway from the extreme north to the north of Svealand, the central of the three main territorial divisions of Sweden (Norrland, Svealand and Gotaland); though this boundary is not so well markd that the political frontier may follow it throughout.
Sweden itself may be considered in four main physical divisions - the mountains and highland district, covering all Norrland and the western part of Svealand; the lowlands of central Sweden; the so-called Sma.land highlands, in the south and southeast; and the plains of Ska.ne, occupying the extreme southward projection of the peninsula.
In Norrland the following terms are common: a, river, often attached to the names of the large rivers, as Torne5., Lulea.
A local increase of the ice period naturally takes place in the upper parts of the Smaland highlands; and in the case of the great lakes of Norrland, the western have a rather shorter ice period than the eastern.
Thus the average in the north of Norrland is 16.53 in., in the south of Norrland 22.6 in.
The number of species decreases according to geographical distribution from south to north; thus while upwards of 1000 are found in Skane, there are only about 700 in the midlands, 500 in the lower parts of southern Norrland and less than 200 in the extreme north.
The distribution of provinces and loin between the three main territorial divisions, Norrland (northern), Svealand (central) and Gdtaland (southern) is also indicated.
However, the annual increase per thousand has been greater in Norrland than elsewhere.
Posting, which is of importance only in the highland districts and the valley roads of Norrland, is carried on by posting-stations (skjutsstation) under government regulations; similar regulations apply when, as in the upper valleys of the great northern rivers, rowing boats on the lakes form the only means of travel.
The condition of the high roads is fair as a whole, and has been much improved by increased state grants towards their upkeep; but in Norrland they are naturally not of the best class.
Southern Norrland to 3% in northern Norrland.
This last is the staple crop in Norrland, becoming the only grain-crop in the extreme north; in the richer agricultural lands of the midlands and south rye is predominant in the east, oats in the west.
The principal breeds of cattle are the alpine in Norrland, and Ayrshire, short-horn, and red-and-white Swedish in the midlands and south.
The deposits of iron ore are confined almost wholly to the extreme north of Norrland, and to a midland zone extending from the south of the Gulf of Bothnia to a point north of Lake Vener, which includes the Dannemora ore fields in the eastern part.
It covers in Norway the division (amter) of Finmarken and the higher inland parts of Tromso and Nordland; in Russian territory the western part of the government of Archangel as far as the White Sea and the northern part of the Finnish district of Uleaborg; and in Sweden the inland and northern parts of the old province of Norrland, roughly coincident with the districts (loin) of Norbotten and Vesterbotten, and divided into five divisions - Torne Lappmark, Lule Lappmark, Pite Lappmark, Lycksele Lappmark and Asele Lappmark.
There are copper-mines at the mountain of Sulitelma, and the iron deposits in Norrland are among the most extensive in the world.
In exchange for a compensation of ninety days' drill for those liable to military service, proposed to retain the old military system of the country and to strengthen the defences of Norrland, and the government bill for a reorganization of the army was accepted by the Riksdag in an extraordinary session.
In Norrland the deposits at Gellivara have long been worked, with the assistance of a railway to the Bothnian port of Lulea, but in 1903 the northern railway was completed across the Norwegian frontier to Narvik on Ofoten Fjord, and the vast deposits at the hills of Kirunavara and Luossavara began to be worked.