Palgrave's most important work is his History of Normandy and England, which appeared in four volumes (London 1851-1864), and deals with the history of the two countries down to 1101.
Of second rank are Reims and Sedan in the Champagne group; Elbeuf, Louviers and Rouen in Normandy; and Mazamet (Tarn).
On the death of William Longsword, duke of Normandy, who had been assassinated by Arnulf, count of Flanders, in December 942, Louis endeavoured to obtain possession of the person of Richard, the young son and heir of the late duke.
The town achieved some prosperity under the dukes of Normandy, who improved its harbour, but after the annexation of Normandy to France it was overshadowed by the rising port of Havre.
The Ypodigma purports to be a history of the dukes of Normandy, but it also contains some English history and its value is not great.
Returning to Normandy, Charles was partly responsible for some unrest in the duchy, and in April 1356 he was treacherously seized by the French king at Rouen, remaining in captivity until November 1357, when John, after his defeat at Poitiers, was a prisoner in England.
Still hankering after Burgundy, Charles saw his French estates again seized; but after some desultory warfare, chiefly in Normandy, peace was made in March 1365, and he returned to his work of interference in the politics of the Spanish kingdoms. In turn he made treaties with the kings of Castile and Aragon, who were at war with each other; promising to assist Peter the Cruel to regain his throne, from which he had been driven in 1366 by his half-brother Henry of Trastamara, and then assuring Henry and his ally Peter of Aragon that he would aid, them to retain Castile.
They appear to have been produced in Normandy and the Vendee, where they were employed for sporting purposes, and originally were no very definite breed.
JACQUES CHARLES DUPONT DE L'EURE (1767-1855), French lawyer and statesman, was born at Neubourg (Eure), in Normandy, on the 27th of February 1767.
It was in the keep, and not, as tradition says, in the much later "Black Tower" (also called "Duke Robert's Tower"), that Robert, duke of Normandy, was imprisoned by order of his brother Henry I.
When Robert's departure for the First Crusade left Normandy in the hands of Rufus (1096) Henry took service under the latter, and he was in the royal hunting train on the day of Rufus's death (August 2nd,.
With Normandy he had more trouble, and the military skill which he had displayed at Tinchebrai was more than once put to the test against Norman rebels.
Granted the men and merchants of the town the same laws and customs as they had in the time of Edward the Confessor, and that they should be quit of toll throughout England, Normandy, Aquitaine and Anjou.
Gudrun is carried off by a king of Normandy, and her kinsfolk, who are in pursuit, are defeated in a great battle on the island of Willpensand off the Dutch coast.
His life was mainly spent in fighting the Welsh and in Normandy, and he died on the 27th of July 1101.
LOUIS NICOLAS VAUQUELIN (1763-1829), French chemist, was born at Saint-Andre-d'Hebertot in Normandy on the 16th of May 1763.
PIERRE LE PESANT BOISGUILBERT, SIEUR DE (1676-1714), French economist, was born at Rouen of an ancient noble family of Normandy, allied to that of Corneille.
Failing through his police to lure the comte d'Artois to land in Normandy, Napoleon pounced on a scion of the House of Bourbon who was within his reach.
Those of most interest to English ornithologists naturally refer to Britanny, Normandy and Picardy, and are by Baillon, Benoist, Blandin, Bureau, Canivet, Chesnon, Degland, Demarle, De Norguet, Gentil, Hardy, Lemetteil, Lemonnicier, Lesauvage, Maignon, Marcotte, Nourry and Tasle, while perhaps the Ornithologie parisienne of M.
In 1137 he did homage for Normandy to Louis VII.
Eustace was knighted in 1147, at which date he was probably from sixteen to eighteen years of age; and in 1151 he joined Louis in an abortive raid upon Normandy, which had accepted the title of the empress Matilda, and was now defended by her husband, Geoffrey of Anjou.
OLIVIER BASSELIN (c. 1400-c. 1450), French poet, was born in the Val-de-Vire in Normandy about the end of the 14th century.
Of France, had reached Constantinople in November 1096, in a species of honourable captivity, and had done Alexius homage; Robert of Normandy and Stephen of Blois, to whom Urban II.
Fulcher of Chartres originally followed Robert of Normandy, but in October 1097 he joined Baldwin of Lorraine in his expedition to Edessa, and afterwards followed his fortunes.
THOMAS BASIN (1412-1491), bishop of Lisieux and historian, was born probably at Caudebec in Normandy, but owing to the devastation caused by the Hundred Years' War, his childhood was mainly spent in moving from one place to another.
After his father's death he crossed the Alps to found a school in France; but in a short while he decided that Normandy would afford him a better field.
His pupils were drawn not only from France and Normandy, but also from Gascony, Flanders, Germany and Italy.
Had Robert been in Normandy the claim of Henry too the English crown might have been effectually opposed.
Some of them were baptized; the territory which was afterwards known as the duchy of Normandy was ceded to them; but the story of the marriage of their chief Rollo with a sister of the king, related by the chronicler Dudo of Saint Quentin, is very doubtful.
The mistletoe so extensively used in England at Christmas is largely derived from the apple orchards of Normandy; a quantity is also sent from the apple orchards of Herefordshire.
At length, however, his friends succeeded in reconciling him with Henry, and, after serving the king in Normandy, he was recalled to England, which he entered early in 1121.
In 1074 he went to Normandy and made peace with William.
And Robert of Normandy, Edgar sided with the latter.
In 1642 she was married to the duc de Longueville, governor of Normandy, a widower twice her age.
She chiefly lived in Normandy till 1663, when her husband died, and she came to Paris.
The Orne, which rises in the hills of Normandy and falls into the Channel below Caen, is of considerably less importance.
The tall, fair and blue-eyed individuals who are found to the north-east of the Seine and in Normandy appear to be nearer in race to the Scandinavian and Germanic invaders; a tall and darker type with long faces and aquiline noses occurs in some parts of Franche-Co1nt and Champagne, the Vosges and the Perche.
The vine grows generally in France, except in the extreme north and in Normandy and Brittany.
(a) Normandy, Perche, Cotentin and maritime Flanders, where horses are bred in great numbers; (b) the strip of coast between the Gironde and the mouth of the Loire; (c) the Morvan including the Nivernais and the Charolais, from which the famous Charolais breed of oxen takes its name; (d) the central region of the central plateau including the districts of Cantal and Aubrac, the home of the famous beef-breeds of Salers and Aubrac.1 The famous pre-sal sheep are also reared in the Vende and Cotentin.
The longest established is that of Normandy, having its centres at Rouen, Havre, Evreux, Falaise and Flers.
The Ouest-Etat, a combination of the West and state systems. The former traversed Normandy in every directionand connected Paris with thetowns of Brittany.
However, when ravaging the country near Alnwick, William was taken prisoner in July 1174, and after a short captivity at Richmond was carried to Normandy, where he soon purchased his release by assenting in December 1174 to the treaty of Falaise.
On his campaigns in Normandy and Guyenne, and was made lieutenant-general of these two provinces.
Briefly, they are to be found in the conditions of the time; the increasing insularity of the English barons, now no longer the holders of estates in Normandy; the substitution of an unpopular for a popular king, an active spur to the rising forces of discontent; and the unprecedented demands for money - demands followed, not by honour, but by dishonour, to the arms of England abroad.
With his mercenaries behind him he met with some small successes in his fight for Normandy, but on the 27th of July he and his ally, the emperor Otto IV., met with a crushing defeat at Bouvines at the hands of Philip Augustus, and even the king himself was compelled to recognise that his hopes of recovering Normandy were at an end.
In the form of "Norman" (Northmannus, Normannus, Normand) it is the name of those colonists from Scandinavia who settled themselves in Gaul, who founded Normandy, who adopted the French tongue and French manners, and who from their new home set forth on new errands of conquest, chiefly in the British Islands and in southern Italy and Sicily.
They adopted the growing feudal doctrines of France, and worked them, both in Normandy and in England, into a harmonious system.
From northern Italy, as it would seem, they adopted a style of architecture which grew in their hands, both in Normandy and in England, into a marked and living form of art.
It is perhaps less wonderful that this characteristic should have been left out in a picture of the Normans in Apulia and Sicily than if it had been left out in a picture of the Normans in Normandy and England.
The conquest of England was made directly from Normandy, by the reigning duke, in a comparatively short time, while the conquest of Sicily grew out of the earlier and far more gradual conquest of Apulia and Calabria by private men.
A comparison of Norman buildings in England and in Normandy will show that the Norman style in England really was affected by the earlier style of England; but the modification was very slight, and it in no way affected the general character of the style.
In Normandy itself, after the separation from England, architecture becomes French, but it is French of a remarkably good type.
The buildings of the latest French style keep a certain purity and sobriety in Normandy which they do not keep elsewhere.
On the old king's death both England and Normandy accepted his nephew, Stephen, of Mortain and Boulogne.
They wasted the next few years in the attempt to win Normandy; but Earl Robert of Gloucester, the half-brother of the empress, at length induced her to visit England and raise her standard in the western shires, where his influence was supreme.
In 1148, having lost by the earl's death her principal supporter, she retired to Normandy, of which her husband had in the meantime gained possession.
LOUIS ELLIES DU PIN (1657-1719), French ecclesiastical historian, came of a noble family of Normandy, and was born at Paris on the 17th of June 1657.
Facing the castle, on the western side of the pill, stand the considerable remains of Monkton Priory, a Benediction house founded by Earl William Marshal as a cell to the abbey of Seez or Sayes in Normandy, but under Henry VI.
"Uncle Morrie" of the next letter is Mr. Morrison Heady, of Normandy, Kentucky, who lost his sight and hearing when he was a boy.