Each of the personal pronouns (except the 3rd plur.) exists in a longer and a shorter form: the one is used as a nominative and is a separate word, the other is attached to verbs and (in a slightly different form) to nouns to express the accusative or genitive.
In the meantime we have proper names to argue from; and these give us at least the significant indication that the Hittite nominative ended in s and the accusative in m.
Thus Delitzsch formerly derived the name from an Akkadian god, I or Ia; or from the Semitic nominative ending, Yau; 7 but this deity has since disappeared from the pantheon of Assyriologists.
An active or causal verb requires before it the instrumental instead of the nominative case, which goes only before a neuter or intransitive verb.
The accusative is often the case represented in Welsh; but we have also the nominative, and sometimes both, as in cawed from civit-as, and ciwdod from civitat-em, now two words, not two cases of the same word.
The relative pronouns are nominative and accusative a, oblique cases ydd, yr, y.
Old Persian abara, Sanskrit abharat, rid abarat, f4~ps: nominative baga, root-form baga-s, Sanskrit rgas.
Nouns retain the accent of the nominative singular in all cases and in both numbers (e.g.