Nodular forms of sulphur occur in Miocene marls near Radoboj in Croatia, and near Swoszowic, south of Cracow.
A series of black shales with nodular limestones, the Pendleside series, rests upon the Mountain Limestone on the east, south and north-west; much of the upper course of the Derwent has been cut through these soft beds.
It was in the year 1886 that Hellriegel and Wilfarth first published in Germany the results of investigations in which they demonstrated that, through the agency of micro-organisms dwelling in nodular outgrowths on the roots of ordinary leguminous plants, the latter are enabled to assimilate the free nitrogen of the air.
The Coal Measures, forming the third great member of the Carboniferous series, consist of alternations of shales and sandstones, with beds of coal and nodular ironstones, which together make up a thickness of many thousands of feet - from 12,000 to 14,000 ft.
The commonest state of aggregation is that of radially arranged fibres, the external surface of the mass being globular, nodular or stalactitic in form.
- Those varieties of native calcium phosphate which are not distinctly crystallized, like apatite, but occur in fibrous, compact or earthy masses, often nodular, and more or less impure, are included under the general term phosphorite.
Many of the impure substances thus utilized are not strictly phosphorite, but pass under such names as " rock-phosphate," or, when nodular, as " coprolite " (q.v.), even if not of true coprolitic origin.
They consist of fine clays with nodular calcareous concretions rich in fossils.
Argillaceous brown iron ore is often known in Germany as Thoneisenstein; but the corresponding term in English (clay iron stone) is applied to nodular forms of impure chalybite.
In many cases the swollen cell-walls serve as reserves, and sometimes the substance is so thickly deposited in strata as to obliterate the lumen, and the hyphae become nodular (Polyporus sacer, P. rhinoceros, Lentinus Woermanni).
The terminal phalanges are small and nodular, not flattened on their inner or opposed surfaces, and not completely encased in hoofs, but bearing nails on their upper surface only.
Both these genera have the toe-bones of the irregular nodular form distinctive of modern camels, so that we may safely infer that the feet themselves had assumed the cushiontype.
Nodular limestone (kankar) occurs in considerable deposits, and is used as road metal.
The Triassic rocks are arranged in two groups, a lower, composed of conglomerates and sandstones, and an upper one consisting of red and mottled shales and marls with thin sandstones and nodular limestones.
The methods by which such results are to be obtained cannot, however, as yet be practised economically on a working scale; one great difficulty in applying them to the refining of metals is that the jets of liquid would be liable to carry with them articles of anode mud, and Swan has shown that the presence of solid particles in the electrolyte is one of the most fruitful causes of the well-known nodular growths on electrodeposited copper.
Even the growth of the well-known nodular incrustations in iron pipes is much reduced by sand filtration.
It is generally nodular, and forms rounded or highly irregular masses which may be several feet in diameter.
Thick, with nodular segregations and abundant cavities which are often lined with zeolites.