Nitzsch, Die romische Annalistik (1873); H.
Nitzsch and by A.
The works may really have been written by one Boetius, a bishop of Africa, as Jourdain supposes, or by some Saint Severinus, as Nitzsch conjectures, and the similarity of name may have aided the transference of them to the heathen or neutral Boetius.
Nitzsch, however, held that this was a copyist's gloss, harmonizing with the received Boetius legend, which had been transferred to the text, and did not consider that it outweighed the opposing internal evidence from De Cons.
Nitzsch, Das System des Boethius and die ihm zugeschriebenen theologischen Schriften (Berlin, 1860), and art.
Nitzsch, the Deutsche Zestschrift fur christliche Wissenschaft and christliches Leben.
Moreover, it veiled the honest attempts that were making both in France and Germany to find real grounds for establishing an improved state of things, and consequently the labours of De Blainville, Etienne, Geoffroy St-Hilaire and L'Herminier, of Merrem, Johannes Muller and Nitzsch-to say nothing of others-were almost wholly unknown on this side of the Channel, and even the value of the investigations of British ornithotomists of high merit, such as Macartney and Pvlacgillivray, was almost completely overlooked.
Fragmente " of Christian Ludwig Nitzsch, published N i n the Magazin fiir den neuesten Zustand der Natur- kunde (edited by Voigt) for May 1806 (xi.
In the following year .another set of hints - of a kind so different that probably no one then living would have thought it possible that they should ever be brought in correlation with those of Nitzsch - are contained in a memoir on Fishes contributed to the tenth volume of the Annales du Museum d'histoire naturelle of Paris by Etienne Geoffroy St-Hilaire in 1807.1 Here we have it stated as a general truth (p. too) that young birds have the ' sternum formed of five separate pieces - one in the middle, being its keel, and two " annexes " on each side to which the ribs are .articulated - all, however, finally uniting to form the single " breast-bone."
Nitzsch, printed at Leipzig in 1811 - a miscellaneous set of detached essays on some Nitzsch.
However, Nitzsch had not as yet seen his way to proposing any methodical arrangement of the various groups of birds, and it was not until some eighteen months later that a scheme of classification in the main anatomical was attempted.
Following the chronological order we are here adopting, we next have to recur to the labours of Nitzsch, who, in 1820, in a treatise on the nasal glands of birds - a subject that Nitzsch had already attracted the attention of Jacobson (Nouv.
That Nitzsch took this extended view is abundantly proved by the valuable series of ornithotomical observations which he must have been for some time accumulating, and almost immediately afterwards began to contribute to the younger Naumann's excellent Naturgeschichte der Vogel Deutschlands, already noticed above.
Upon these descriptions he was still engaged till death, in 1837, put an end to his labours, when his place as Naumann's assistant for the remainder of the work was taken by Rudolph Wagner; but, from time to time, a few more, which he had already completed, made their posthumous appearance in it, and, in subsequent years, some selections from his unpublished papers were through the care of Giebel presented to the public. Throughout the whole of this series the same marvellous industry and scrupulous accuracy are manifested, and attentive study of it will show how many times Nitzsch anticipated the conclusions of modern taxonomers.
Two years later Nitzsch, who was indefatigable in his endeavour to discover the natural families of birds and had been pursuing a series of researches into their vascular system, published the result, at Halle in Saxony, in his Observationes de avium arteria carotide communi, in which is included a classification drawn up in accordance with the variation of structure which that important vessel presented in the several groups that he had opportunities of examining.
To enable the reader to compare the several groups of Nitzsch with the families of L'Herminier, the numbers applied by the latter to his families are suffixed in square brackets to the names of the former; and, disregarding the order of sequence, which is here immaterial, the essential correspondence of the two systems is worthy of all attention, for it obviously means that these two investigators, starting from different points, must have been on the right track, when they so often coincided as to the limits of what they considered to be, and what we are now almost justified in calling, natural groups.'
But it must be observed that the classification of Nitzsch, just given, rests much more on characters furnished by the general structure than on those furnished by the carotid artery only.
This form Nitzsch was only able to find in the bittern (Ardea stellaris).
1 Whether Nitzsch was cognizant of L'Herminier's views is in no way apparent.
The latter's name seems not to be even mentioned by him, but Nitzsch was in Paris in the summer of 1827, and it is almost impossible that he should not have heard of L'Herminier's labours, unless the relations between the followers of Cuvier to whom Nitzsch attached himself, and those of De Blainville, whose pupil L'Herminier was, were such as to forbid anv communication between the rival schools.
That in which the left carotid artery alone exists, as found in all other birds examined by Nitzsch, and therefore as regards species and individuals much the most common - since into this category come the countless thousands of the passerine birds - a group which outnumbers all the rest put together.
Book tl (p xxxviii., note) r he expressed his regret at not being able to use as fully as he could wish the excellent researches of Nitzsch which were then appearing (as has been above said) in the successive parts of Naumann's great work.
He knew at least the earlier investigations of L'Herminier, and, though the work of Nitzsch, even if he had ever heard of it, must (through ignorance of the language in which it was written) have been to him a sealed book, he had followed out and extended the hints already given by Temminck as to the differences which various groups of birds display in their moult.
Again we must recur to that indefatigable and most original investigator Nitzsch, who, having never intermitted his study of the particular subject of his first contribution to Nitzsch.
There can be no doubt that Professor Burmeister discharged his editorial duty with the most conscientious scrupulosity; but, from what has been just said, it is certain that there were important points on which Nitzsch was as yet undecided - some of them perhaps of which no trace appeared in his manuscripts, and therefore as in every case of works posthumously published, unless (as rarely happens) they have received their author's " imprimatur," they cannot be implicitly trusted as the expression of his final views.
Moreover, as Professor Burmeister states in his preface, Nitzsch by no means regarded the natural sequence of groups as the highest problem of the systematist, but rather their correct limitation.
Instead of recognizing, as before, a subclass in the Ratitae of Merrem, Nitzsch now reduced them to the rank of an order under the name " Platysternae," placing them between the " Gallinaceae " and " Grallae," though admitting that in their pterylosis they differ from all other birds, in ways that he is at great pains to describe, in each of the four genera examined by him - Struthio, Rhea, Dromaeus and Casuarius.
5 It is significant that notwithstanding this he did not figure the pterylosis of any one of them, and the thought suggests itself that, though his editor assures us he had convinced himself that the group must be here shoved in (eingeschoben is the word used), the intrusion is rather due to the necessity which Nitzsch, in common with most men of his time (the Quinarians excepted), felt for deploying the whole series of birds into line, in which case the proceeding may be defensible on the score of convenience.
6 Andreas Wagner, in his report on the progress of 2 A short essay by Nitzsch on the general structure of the Passerines, written, it is said, in 1836, was published in 1862 (Zeitschr.
Nitzsch had of course exhausted all the forms of birds commonly to be obtained, and specimens of the less common forms were too valuable from the curator's or collector's point of view to be subjected to a treatment that might end in their destruction.
Yet it is said, on good authority, that Nitzsch had the patience so to manipulate the skins of many rare species that he was able to ascertain the characters of their pterylosis by the inspection of their inside only, without in any way damaging them for the ordinary purpose of a museum.
At the same time Muller showed himself, his power of discrimination notwithstanding, to fall behind Nitzsch in one very crucial point, for he refused to the latter's Picariae the rank that had been claimed for them, and imagined that the groups associated under that name formed but a third " tribe" - Picarii - of a great order Insessores, the others being (1) the Oscines or Polymyodi - the singing birds by emphasis, whose inferior larynx was endowed with the full number of five pairs of song-muscles, and (2) the Tracheophones, composed of some South-American families.
Nothing whatever is to be said against the composition of his first and second " tribes"; but the third is an assemblage still more heterogeneous than that which Nitzsch brought together under a name so like that of Muller - for the fact must never be allowed to go out of sight that the extent of the Picarii of the latter is not at all that of the Picariae of the former.'
Instance, Muller places in his third "tribe" the group which he called Ampelidae, meaning thereby the peculiar forms of South America that are now considered to be more properly named Cotingidae, and herein he was clearly right, while Nitzsch, who (misled by their supposed affinity to the genus A mpelis - peculiar to the Northern Hemisphere, and a purely Passerine form) had kept them among hisPasserinae, was as clearly wrong.
Just as Nitzsch had laboured under the disadvantage of never having any example of the abnormal Passeres of the New World to dissect, and, therefore, was wholly ignorant of their abnormality, so Muller never succeeded in getting hold of an example of the genus Pitta for the same purpose, and yet, acting on the clue furnished by Keyserling and Blasius, he did not hesitate to predict that it would be found to fill one of the gaps he had to leave, and this to some extent it has been since proved to do.
X.-xii.), while Blyth and Nitzsch had (as already mentioned) seen some of their value in classification.
He of course knew the investigations of L'Herminier and De Blainville on sternal formation, and he also seems to have been aware of some pterylological differences exhibited by birds - whether those of Nitzsch or those of Jacquemin is not stated.
Escaped the observation of Nitzsch, but he had scarcely used it as a classificatory character.
Clamatores, being a majority of that division of the Picariae of Nitzsch, so called by Andreas Wagner, in 1841, 1 which have their feet normally constructed; 3.
Nitzsch and G.
Nitzsch (1829), T.
Nitzsch, Dillmann, Ritschl and Sinker are convinced that the book was not a translation but was written originally in Greek.
Gieseler, and Karl Immanuel Nitzsch for colleagues, he was called in 1827 to GÃ¶ttingen to succeed K.
The Allgemeine Monatschrift fur Literatur (1850), conducted after 1851 by Droysen, Nitzsch and others, continued only down to 1854; the Literarisches Centralblatt (1850) is still published.
Nitzsch, De Lysandro (Bonn, 1847); and the Greek histories in general.
On the relation of Neoplatonism to Christianity, and the historical importance of Neoplatonism generally, see the leading church histories, and the Histories of Dogma by Baur, Nitzsch, Harnack, &c. Compare also Loffler, Der Platonismus der Kirchenvater (1782); Huber, Die Philosophie der Kirchenvdter (1859); Tzchirner, Fall des Heidenthums (1829), pp. 574618; Burckhardt, Die Zeit Constantin's des Grossen (1853); Chastel, Hist.
Nitzsch (1818) to the degraded wingless parasites (fig.
Nitzsch argues against the doctrine of the annihilation of the wicked, regards the teaching of Scripture about eternal damnation as hypothetical, and thinks it possible that Paul reached the hope of universal restoration.
Nitzsch, Geschichte des deutschen Volkes bis zum Augsburger Religionsfrieden (Leipzig, 1883-1885).
Nitzsch, whose writings cover the years 1828-1862, and deal with every side of the controversy.