- Besides its use as a starting-point in the production of "nitroglycerin" (q.v.) and other chemical products, glycerin is largely employed for a number of purposes in the arts, its application thereto being due to its peculiar physical properties.
Torpedoing The explosive employed is generally nitroglycerin, Wells.
They are consecutively filled with nitroglycerin, and are lowered to the bottom of the well, one after the other, by a cord wound upon a reel, until the required number have been inserted.
Now, however, a miniature torpedo known as a go-devil squib, holding about a quart of nitroglycerin, and having a firing-head similar to that already described, is almost invariably employed.
NITROGLYCERIN, C3H5(N03)3 or CH 2 NO 3 Chno 3 CH2N03 glyceryl trinitrate, an explosive first obtained in 1846 by Ascanio Sobrero (Mem.
The higher the strength of the acids the higher the yield of nitroglycerin and the smaller the loss by solution in the waste acids.
Nitroglycerin dissolves a little water and then appears thick or milky.
Generally it is either dried, after being separated from the wash water, by means of common salt, upon a layer of which the moist nitroglycerin is gently run and allowed to drain or filter through, or it is filtered through a mass of dry sponge or similar dry and porous material.
To prevent the freezing of nitroglycerin in dynamite it has been proposed to add various substances, such as chlordinitroglycerin, nitrated diglycerin or tetranitrodiglycerol, and also mono-and di-nitroglycerin.
It appears that an addition of dinitroglycerin to nitroglycerin would materially retard its freezing or lessen its sensitiveness (see also C. Claessen, Ger.
Some solutions of nitroglycerin (in ether, acetone, &c.) burn quietly, and the same is the case when it is held in solution or suspension in a colloid substance, as gelatinized guncotton, &c.
Strong sulphuric acid dissolves nitroglycerin, and this solution on being poured into water yields dinitroglycerin (see Will, loc. cit.) and also some mononitroglycerin.
Shaken with mercury and sulphuric acid, nitroglycerin yields its nitrogen as nitric oxide; the measurement of the volume of this gas is a convenient mode of estimating nitroglycerin.
Calcium or potassium sulphides and potassium hydrosulphides completely reduce nitroglycerin to glycerin, some of the sulphur being oxidized and some precipitated.
Aniline and similar bases are oxidized and partially nitrated by nitroglycerin, with the production of non-explosive compounds.
The first attempts to utilize the explosive power of nitroglycerin were made by Nobel in 1863; they were only partially successful until the plan, first applied by General Pictot in 1854, of developing the force of gunpowder in the most rapid manner and to the maximum extent, through initiative detonation, was applied by Nobel to nitroglycerin.
- Nitroglycerin has a sweet burning taste and is decidedly poisonous.
The explanation is that in an alkaline medium at body heat nitroglycerin yields a nitrite, probably as a preliminary stage of resolution.
Nitroglycerin shaken up with warm very dilute alkaline solutions, as sodium carbonate, for a few minutes only, always yields sufficient nitrite to give the diazoreaction; and, as stated, strong alkaline solutions always produce some nitrite as one of the decomposition products.
This gradual conversion in the tissues is a valuable property of nitroglycerin, as its effects take longer to manifest themselves than is the case with amyl and other nitrites.
Nitroglycerin is valuable as a preventive in cases of cardiac pain, such as angina pectoris, and it is also used in other conditions where it is desirable to reduce the arterial tension.
They are mostly distinguished by special trade names, and are mainly of two classes - those containing ammonium nitrate and nitrobenzene or nitronaphthalene, and those containing nitroglycerin and nitrocellulose, which are essentially weak dynamites.
- This group contains amyl nitrite, ethyl nitrite, methyl nitrite, nitroglycerin, sodium and potassium nitrites, erythrol-tetranitrate, and many other compounds containing nitrous or nitric acid.