In the combined state nitrogen is fairly widely distributed, being found in nitre, Chile saltpetre, ammonium salts and in various animal and vegetable tissues and liquids.
It is mentioned in the De inventione veritatis ascribed to Geber, wherein it is obtained by calcining a mixture of nitre, alum and blue vitriol.
In John Houghton's Collections on Husbandry and Trade, a periodical work begun in 1681, there is one of the earliest notices of turnips being eaten by sheep:" Some in Essex have their fallow after turnips, which feed their sheep in winter, by which means the turnips are scooped, and so made capable to hold dews and rain water, which, by corrupting,; _ mbibes the nitre of the air, and when the shell breaks it runs about and fertilizes.
These are washed with ammonium chloride until the filtrate is colourless, ignited, fused with caustic potash and nitre, the melt dissolved in water and nitric acid added to the solution until the colour of potassium ruthenate disappears.
The residue is then fused with caustic potash and nitre, dissolved in water, saturated with chlorine and distilled on the water-bath in a current of chlorine.
It is also oxidized when fused with caustic potash and nitre, forming a ruthenate.
Potassium ruthenate, K2Ru04 H20, obtained by fusion of the metal with caustic potash and nitre, crystallizes in prisms which become covered with a black deposit on exposure to moist air.
This was met in a very large measure by deposits of natural nitre and the products of artificial nitrieres, whilst additional supplies are available in the ammoniacal liquors of the gas-manufacturer, &c. The possible failure of the nitre deposits led to attempts to convert atmospheric nitrogen into manures by processes permitting economic success.
Its chief mineral products are coal, nitre, sulphur, alum, soda, saltpetre, gypsum, porcelain-earth, pipe-clay, asphalt, petroleum, marble and ores of gold, silver, mercury, copper, iron, lead, zinc, antimony, cobalt and arsenic. The principal mining regions are Zsepes-Giimor in Upper Hungary, the Kremnitz-Schemnitz district, the Nagybanya district, the Transylvanian deposits and the Banat.
Sal, salt, petra, a rock), the commercial name given to three naturally occurring nitrates, distinguished as (1) ordinary saltpetre, nitre, or potassium nitrate, (2) Chile saltpetre, cubic nitre, or sodium nitrate, (3) wall-saltpetre or calcium nitrate.
Chile saltpetre, cubic nitre or sodium nitrate, NaNO,, occurs under the same conditions as ordinary saltpetre in deposits covering immense areas in South America, which are known locally as caliche or terra salitrosa, and abound especially in the provinces of Tarapaca and Antofagasta in Chile.
The nitre thus refined is exported chiefly from Valparaiso, whence the name of "Chile saltpetre."
Nitre, sodium carbonate, &c.
The precipitated gold is washed, treated with salt and sulphuric acid to remove iron salts, roughly dried by pressing in cloths or on filter paper, and then melted with salt, borax and nitre in graphite crucibles.
The precipitate is collected in a filter-press, and then roasted in muffle furnaces with nitre, borax and sodium carbonate.
Telluric acid, H2Te04, is obtained in the form of its salts when tellurium is fused with potassium carbonate and nitre, or by the oxidizing action of chlorine on a tellurite in alkaline solution.
Hydrated sulphates occur at several localities in the province of Madrid and in other provinces of Spain, and at Miihlingen in Aargau, and copious deposits of glauberite, the double sulphate of sodium and calcium, are met with in the salt-mines of Villarrubia in Spain, at Stassfurt, and in the province of Tarapaca, Chile, &c. A native nitrate of soda is obtained in great abundance in the district of Atacama and the province of Tarapaca, and is imported into Europe in enormous quantities as cubic nitre for the preparation of saltpetre.
Potassium nitrate is chiefly used to make nitre paper, which on burning emits fumes useful in the treatment of the asthmatic paroxysm.
The former, "fire-air," or oxygen, he prepared from "acid of nitre," from saltpetre, from black oxide of manganese, from oxide of mercury and other substances, and there is little doubt but that he obtained it independently a considerable time before Priestley.
Chromium and its salts may be detected by the fact that they give a deep green bead when heated with borax, or that on fusion with sodium carbonate and nitre, a yellow mass of an alkaline chromate is obtained, which, on solution in water and acidification with acetic acid, gives a bright yellow precipitate on the addition of soluble lead salts.
This part he called spiritus igneo-aereus, or sometimes nitro-aereus; for he identified it with one of the constituents of the acid portion of nitre which he regarded as formed by the union of fixed alkali with a Spiritus acidus.
Thus he clearly described the preparation of hydrochloric acid by the action of oil of vitriol on common salt, the manifold virtues of sodium sulphate - sal mirabile, Glauber's salt - formed in the process being one of the chief themes of his Miraculum mundi; and he noticed that nitric acid was formed when nitre was substituted for the common salt.
Should now try non-decomposing bodies, as solid nitre, nitrate of silver, borax, glass, &c., whilst solid, to see if any internal state induced, which by decomposition is destroyed, i.e.
It was again described by Albert le Grand in the 13th century and by Raimon Lull, who prepared it by heating nitre and clay and called it "eau forte."
The acid is found to exist to a slight extent in the free condition in some waters, but chiefly occurs in combination with various metals, as nitrates, principally as nitre or saltpetre, KN03, and Chile saltpetre, NaNO 3.
The offensive taste of rape oil may also be removed by treatment with a small proportion of sweet spirit of nitre (nitrous ether).
Oxygen may be prepared by heating mercuric oxide; by strongly heating manganese dioxide and many other peroxides; by heating the oxides of precious metals; and by heating many oxy-acids and oxy-salts to high temperatures, for example, nitric acid, sulphuric acid, nitre, lead nitrate, zinc sulphate, potassium chlorate, &c. Potassium chlorate is generally used and the reaction is accelerated and carried out at a lower temperature by previously mixing the salt with about one-third of its weight of manganese dioxide, which acts as a catalytic agent.
Those of the alkali metals are prepared by fusing manganese dioxide with sodium or potassium hydroxide in the presence of air or of some oxidizing agent (nitre, potassium chlorate, &c.); MnO 2 +2KHO+O=K 2 Mn0 4 +H 2 O.
Nitre abounds in the soil over all the south-west of Afghanistan, and often affects the water of the karez or subterranean canals.
His Memoire pour le retablissement n France de l'ordre des freres precheurs was then prepared and dedicated to his country; at the same time he collected the materials for the life of St Dominic. When he returned to France in 1841 he resumed his preaching at Nitre Dame, but he had small success in re-establishing the order of which he ever afterwards called himself monk.
But research showed that this process of nitrification is dependent on temperature, aeration and moisture, as is life, and that while nitre-beds can infect one another, the process is stopped by sterilization.
Ordinary sulphuric acid, H 2 SO 4, may be prepared by dissolving sulphur trioxide in water, a reaction accompanied by a great evolution of heat; by the gradual oxidation of an aqueous solution of sulphur dioxide, a fact which probably explains the frequent occurrence of sulphuric acid in the natural waters rising in volcanic districts; or by deflagrating a mixture of sulphur and nitre in large glass bells or jars, absorbing the vapours in water and concentrating the solution.
The reaction is then: 2SO 2 (OH) (ONO) + SO 2 + 2H 2 O = 3H 2 SO 4 + 2NO; that is to say, all the "nitre" is returned to the chambers in the shape of NO; the sulphuric acid employed in the Gay-Lussac process is not merely recovered, but an additional quantity is formed from fresh S02; as the heat of the burner-gases also comes into play, much water is evaporated, which supplies part of the steam required for the working of the chambers; and the acid issues from the apparatus in a "denitrated" and sufficiently concentrated state (78 to 80% H2S04) to be used over again for absorbing nitrous vapours or any other purpose desired.
By judiciously watching all stages of the process, by observing the draught, the strength of the acid produced, the temperature, and especially by frequent analyses of the gases, the yield of acid has been brought up to 98% of the theoretical maximum, with a loss of nitre sometimes as low as two parts to loo of sulphur burned.
Although this method appears more troublesome, it allows the amount of nitre to be more easily and more accurately regulated.
H, Acid eggs or reservoirs for B, Nitre oven.
"packing" the towers have been rendered more durable, and in the case of the Gay-Lussac tower the loss of nitre has been diminished by avoiding the use of a coke packing, which acts upon that substance as a reducing agent.
It is rapidly oxidized on heating to a temperature of 500°-600° C., and also when fused with nitre or potassium chlorate.
By heating nitre with strong sulphuric acid.
He now began the course of Christian conferences at the College Stanislas, which attracted the art and intellect of Paris; thence he went to Nitre Dame, and for two years his sermons were the delight of the capital.