In practice this usually occurs; for example, on further bromination, a-bromonaphthalene yields a mixture of the (i.4) and (1.5) dibromonaphthalenes; and when nitronaphthalene is either brominated, or nitrated or sulphonated, the action is practically confined to the second ring.
When heated to 250° C. with red phosphorus and hydriodic acid it gives a hydride It is nitrated by nitric acid and sulphonated by sulphuric acid.
At the time these products were thought to be related to the nitrated starch obtained a little previously by Henri Braconnot and called xyloidin; they are only related in so far as they are nitrates.
Other products were soluble in the ether-alcohol mixture: they were less highly nitrated, and constituted the so-called collodion guncotton.
In the recent methods the cotton remains in contact with the acids for two to four hours at the ordinary air temperature (15° C.), in which time it is almost fully nitrated, the main portion, say 90%, having a composition represented by the formula e C6H702(N03)3, the remainder consisting of lower nitrated products, some oxidation products and traces of unchanged cellulose and cellulose sulphates.
The nitrated product retains the outward form of the original cellulose.
Alkali sulphohydrates reduce guncotton, or other nitrated celluloses, completely to cellulose.
The so-called collodion cottons are nitrated celluloses, but of a lower degree of nitration (as a rule) than guncotton.
In a similar manner, formic acid and dicyanophenylhydrazine yields a phenyl-triazole carboxylic acid, in which the phenyl group may be nitrated, the nitro group reduced to the amino group, and the product oxidized to a triazole carboxylic acid, which, by elimination of carbon dioxide, yields the free triazole: HO 2 C C=N H02C C =N, NPh-> N :CH N :CH They also result when the acidylthiosemicarbazides are strongly heated, the mercapto-triazoles so formed being converted into triazoles on oxidation with hydrogen peroxide (M.
To prevent the freezing of nitroglycerin in dynamite it has been proposed to add various substances, such as chlordinitroglycerin, nitrated diglycerin or tetranitrodiglycerol, and also mono-and di-nitroglycerin.
Aniline and similar bases are oxidized and partially nitrated by nitroglycerin, with the production of non-explosive compounds.
It is readily nitrated to nitrobenzene, two, and even three nitro groups being introduced if some dehydrator such as concentrated sulphuric acid be present.
Soc., 1900, 77, pp. 99 et seq.) nitrated para-oxyazobenzene with dilute nitric acid and found that it gave a benzene-azo-ortho-nitrophenol, whereas quinone are not attacked by dilute nitric acid.
The reverse series of operations was also carried out by the Fischers, triphenylmethane being nitrated, and the nitro compound then reduced to triaminotriphenylmethane or paraleucaniline, which on careful oxidation is converted into the dyestuff.
It yields a nitroso derivative, is nitrated by nitric acid to dilituric acid and brominated by bromine.
One of the most important of his investigations had to do with the manufacture of guncotton, and he developed a process, consisting essentially of reducing the nitrated cotton to fine pulp, which enabled it to be prepared with practically no danger and at the same time yielded the product in a form that increased its usefulness.
It is readily brominated and nitrated; when the nitration is carried out in the presence of sulphuric acid, the nitro-groups take up the meta position with regard to the amino-groups.