Macrinus was defeated at Nisibis and concluded a peace with Artabanus, in which he gave up all the Roman conquests, restored the booty, and paid a heavy contribution to the Parthians (Dio Cass.
Its main centres were at Edessa and Nisibis, but it was the literary language of practically all the Christian writers in the region east of Antioch, as well as of the Christian subjects of the Persian empire.
NISIBIS (Nasibina in the Assyrian inscriptions), an ancient city and fortress in the north of Mesopotamia, near the point where the Mygdonius (mod.
The site of Nisibis, on the great road between the Tigris and the Mediterranean, and commanding alike the mountain country to the north and the then fertile plain to the south, gave it an importance which began during the Assyrian period and continued under the Seleucid empire.
14 Nisibis was the residence of the kings of Armenia, and there Tigranes had his treasure-houses.
Ceded to the Parthians by Hadrian, it became a Roman colony (Septimia Colonia Nisibis) under Septimius Severus.
Nisibis early became the seat of a Jacobite bishop and of a Nestorian metropolitan, and under the Arabs (when it continued to flourish and became the centre of the district of Diya`r Rebi`a) the population of the town and neighbourhood was still mostly Christian, and included numerous monasteries.
Arab geographers and travellers of the middle ages speak in high terms of the gardens of Nisibis, and the magnificent returns obtained by the agriculturist.
The town was so heavily taxed by the Hamdanid princes at Mosul that the Arab tribe of the Banu Habib, although blood relations of the Hamdanids, migrated into Byzantine territory, where they were well received, accepted Christianity, attracted other emigrants from Nisibis, and at last began to avenge themselves by yearly raids upon their old home.
This destroyed the prosperity of Nisibis, and the district, no longer protected against nomad tribes, became a wilderness.
Nisibis (Nezib) appeared for the last time in history in 1839, when the Egyptians under Ibrahim Pasha defeated the Turkish army under Hafiz Pasha on the 24th of June in a battle at which von Moltke was present.
With such Mesopotamian cities as Nisibis, Amid, Mardin, Taghrith and Seleucia-Ctesiphon, as well as west of the Euphrates at such centres as Mabbogh (Hierapolis, and Aleppo, northwards at Malatiah and Maiperkat and in the districts of Lake Van and Lake Urmia, and to the east and south-east of the Tigris in many places which from the 5th century onwards were centres of Nestorian Christianity within the Sasanian Empire.
The Nestorian teachers then started a great school at Nisibis (which had been under Persian rule since Jovian's humiliating treaty of 363).
The most powerful missionary of Nestorianism during the 2nd half of the 5th century was Barsauma of Nisibis, whom his opponents called " the swimmer among the reeds," i.e.
Barsauma must have been bishop of Nisibis for nearly 40 years, but was dead by 496.
His writings seem to have been chiefly liturgical: he gave the first set of statutes to the school of Nisibis, which was founded during his bishopric.
His fellow-worker Narsai, whom the Jacobites called " the leper," but the Nestorians " the harp of the Holy Spirit," apparently accompanied Barsauma from Edessa to Nisibis, where according to Barhebraeus he lived for 50 years.
This version appears to be quite distinct from that used by the compiler of the chronicle of Zacharias, 6 and also from the version of " the 6th book of the select letters of Severus " which was made by Athanasius " presbyter of Nisibis " in 669 and has been edited by E.
Of al-Ahwaz or Khuzistan), who came third in succession to Narsai as head of the school of Nisibis, was the first Syriac grammarian and invented various signs of interpunction.
Elias bar Shinaya, who in 1008 became Nestorian bishop of Nisibis, was the author of a valuable Chronicle, to which are prefixed numerous chronological tables, lists of popes, patriarchs, &c., and which covers by its narrative the period from A.D.
Lastly, acknowledgment must be made of the great value of the Catalogue of Nestorian writers, by `Abadisho' of Nisibis, the latest important writer in Syriac. It was edited by Assemani in the 3rd part of his Bibliotheca orientalis, and has been translated into English by Badger.
Meanwhile one of his pupils, Barsumas, had settled at Nisibis in Persian territory where he became bishop in 435 and established a Nestorian school.
That the ascetic ideal was by no means wholly extinct is evident from the Book of Governors written by Thomas, bishop of Marga, in 840 which bears witness to a Syrian monasticism founded by one Awgin of Egyptian descent, who settled in Nisibis about 3 50, and lasting uninterruptedly until the time of Thomas, though it had long been absorbed in the great Nestorian movement that had annexed the church in Mesopotamia.
P. 38, Arsamos; in the canon of Ptolemy, Aroges (by Elias of Nisibis, Piruz); in a chronological tablet from Babylon (Brit.
The same form of the name (probably pronounced Uvasu) occurs in the Syrian version of the canon of Ptolemy by Elias of Nisibis (Amos).
127-129), he crossed the Euphrates and relieved Edessa, recovered Nisibis and Carrhae, and even took the offensive against the power of Persia, and twice invested Ctesiphon itself, the capital; probably also he brought back Armenia into the Empire.
Elias of Nisibis), medicine (Galen) and cosmetics (Cleopatra), in ready-reckoners (Didymus), clerk's (katib's) guides, and like handbooks, and in indirect explanations of the equivalents of measures mentioned by authors (e.g.
Soc. (1877), translation of Elias of Nisibis, with notes (remarkable for history of balance); Schillbach (lists of weights, all in next);
At Nasibin (Nisibis) rice is cultivated with success.
Nasibina, Nisibis), on confluents of the Khabur; Sinjar (Singara) on the Tharthar.
6; in the Khabur district), Bit Adini (Osroene), Kummukh (north-west corner and beyond); in the Roman period, Osroene, Mygdonia (in the east), and in Syriac usage Beth `Arbaye (between Nisibis and Mosul); in the Arab period, Diarbekr (T ar `Abdin), Diar Rebi'a (Mygdonia), Diar Muelar (Osroene).
It was perhaps a Parthian governor of Mesopotamia that was called in to help Strato of Beroea against Demetrius III.; but before long Mesopotamia (especially the district of Nisibis) was attached to the growing dominions of Armenia under its ambitious king Tigranes, perhaps with the consent of Sinatruces (Sanatruces).
The affairs of Armenia continued to be the source of friction between Parthia and Rome, and Nisibis changed hands several times.
62 reached no further westwards than Nisibis, and in 66 a peaceable arrangement was come to.
The woods at Nisibis, the headquarters, provided material for the boats with which in 116 he crossed the Tigris.
For the revolt that occurred while Trajan was on the Persian Gulf, in which the Jews had an important hand, Nisibis and Edessa suffered capture and destruction.
Then, when Vologaeses, yielding to his growing discontent, took advantage of the death of Antoninus to invade Armenia the Romans were victorious (164), and after the storming of places such as Nicephorium, Edessa, Nisibis, western Mesopotamia was once more Roman as far as the Khabur, Carrhae becoming a free city and Osroene a dependency.
Unfortunately they contain practically nothing that is not of Christian origin.4 On the death of Aurelius Hatra aided Niger against Septimius Severus in 194; Osroene rose against Rome, and Nisibis was besieged and other Roman places taken; but Septimius Severus appeared in person (195), and from Nisibis as headquarters subdued the whole country, of which he made Nisibis metropolis, raising it to the rank of a colony, the Sinjar district, where Arabs from Yemen had settled, being incorporated.
On his retiring everything was undone, only Nisibis holding out; but on his reappearance in 198 the Parthians withdrew.
On his assassination near Carrhae (217), Macrinus was defeated at Nisibis and had to purchase peace, though he retained Roman Mesopotamia, reinstating the princely house in Osroene.
Had resisted Rome; but Mesopotamia was overrun, Nisibis and Carrhae being taken (233).
It was immediately, indeed, recovered by Alexander Severus, and retained, whatever was the precise success of the war; but Nisibis and Period.
In 242 Mesopotamia was entered by a great Roman army which recovered Carrhae and Nisibis, and defeated the Persians at Rhesaena; but when Gordian, after a difficult march down the Khabur, was murdered at Zaitha below Circesium, Philip the Arabian (244) made the best terms he could with Shapur I.
A rest for Mesopotamia seems to have followed; but in 258 Shapur, tempted by the troubles in the Roman empire, overran the country taking Nisibis and Carrhae, and investing Edessa, and .vhen Valerian invaded Mesopotamia he was eventually made prisoner, by Edessa (260).
When it was retrieved by a signal victory, Diocletian advanced to Nisibis and thence dictated terms of peace by which Mesopotamia to the Tigris was definitely ceded to Rome (298).
At the Nicene Council there were bishops from Nisibis (Jacob), Rhesaena, Macedonopolis (on the Euphrates, west of Edessa), and Persia (Harnack, Mission and Expansion of Christianity, ii.
Nisibis thrice endured unsuccessful siege (33 8, 346, 35 o), although meanwhile Constantine had suffered defeat at Singara (348).
Then Mesopotamia enjoyed two short rests (separated by a sharp struggle) while the rivals were engaged elsewhere, when in 363 Julian made his disastrous attempt, and Jovian bought peace at the price, among other things, of Singara and Nisibis - i.e.
The surrender of Nisibis, which had been in the possession of Rome for so many generations, caused consternation among the Christians, and Ephraem (q.v.) moved to Edessa, where his "school of the Persians" soon became famous (see Edessa).
In the war of 421, in which the north-east of Mesopotamia was chiefly concerned, the Romans failed to take Nisibis, and it became a natural rallying point for the Nestorians after the decision of Ephesus (431).