(C. Mi.) Nishapur, a province of Persia, situated between Meshed and Sabzevar, in northern Khorasan.
Of the city of Nishapur, at an elevation of 5100 ft., in 36° 28' N., 58° 20' E.), where the famous mines are which have supplied the world with turquoises for at least 2000 years.
Nishapur (Old Pers.
Naisabur), the capital of the province of Nishapur, Persia, situated at an elevation of 3920 ft., in 36° 12' N., and 58° 40' E., about 49 m.
Nishapur was an important place during the 5th century, for Yazdegerd II.
Toghrul, the first ruler of the Seljuk dynasty, made Nishapur his residence in 1037.
But the pay was small, and Avicenna wandered from place to place through the districts of Nishapur and Mer y to the borders of Khorasan, seeking an opening for his talents.
Herat gradually recovered under the enlightened Ghorid kings, who were indeed natives of the province, though they preferred to hold their court amid their ancestral fortresses in the mountains of Ghor, so that at the time of Jenghiz Khan's invasion it equalled or even exceeded in populousness and wealth its sister capitals of Balkh, Mery and Nishapur, the united strength of the four cities being estimated at three millions of inhabitants.
MUSLIM IBN AL-Hajjaj, the Imam, the author of one of the two books of Mahommedan tradition called Sahih, "sound," was born at Nishapur at some uncertain date after A.D.
But though he was a student and friend of Ahmad ibn Hanbal he did not go in traditionalism to the length of some, and he defended al-Bukhari when the latter was driven from Nishapur for refusing to admit that the utterance (lafz) of the Koran by man was as uncreated as the Koran itself (see Mahommedan Religion; and Patton's Ahmad ibn Hanbal, 32 sqq.).
As soon as Ismail had assumed the sovereignty at Balkh, Mahmud, who was at Nishapur, addressed him in friendly terms, proposing a division of the territories held by their father at his death.
In the meantime they plundered and destroyed the flourishing cities of Mer y and Nishapur; and when Sinjar, after his escape from captivity, revisited the site of his capital he fell sick of sorrow and grief and died soon afterwards (1157).
In 1750 he took Nishapur, and in 1752 subdued Kashmir.
The brilliant days are past when the universities of Damascus, Bagdad, Nishapur, Cairo, Kairawan, Seville, Cordova, were thronged by thousands of students of theology, when a professor had often hundreds or even, like Bukhari, thousands of hearers, and when vast estates in the hands of the clergy fed both masters and scholars.
Meantime, Nasr had moved from Nishapur to Merv, and here the two Arabic armies confronted each other.
The great power long wielded by the Tahirids, not only in the eastern provinces, but also at Bagdad itself, had been gradually diminishing, and came to an end in the year 873, when Ya`qub the Saffarid occupied Nishapur and imprisoned Mahommed b.
There are several important ranges in Khorasan, and one of them, the Binalud, west of Meshed and north of Nishapur, has several peaks of 11,000 to 12,000 ft.
Isfahan (100,000); Meshed (8o,ooo); Kerman, Resht, Shiraz (6o,ooo); Barfurush, Kazvin, Yezd (5o,ooo); Hamadan, Kermnshah (40,000); Kashan, Khoi, Urmia (35,000); Birjend, Burujird, Bushire, Dizful, Kum, Senendij (Sinna), Zenjan (25,00o to 30,000); Amol, Ardebil, Ardistan, Astarabad, Abekuh, Barn, Bander, Abbasi, Bander Lingah, Damghan, Dilman, Istahbanat, Jahnim, Khunsar, Kumishah, Kuchan, Marand, Maragha, Nishapur, Sari, Sabzevar, Samnan, Shahrud, Shushter (1o,ooo to 20,000).
There are turquoise mines near Nishapur (for description of mines, manner of working, &c., see A.
With this war is evidently connected the foundation of the great town New-Shapur (Nishapur) in Khorasan.
In 1037 Seljuk princes were recognized in Merv and Nishapur, and in the ensuing eighteen years the Seljuks conquered Balkh, Jorjan, Tabaristan, Klwarizm, Hamadan, Rai, Isfahan, and finally Bagdad (1055).
Abbas, who had been proclaimed king by the nobles at Nishapur some two or three years before this occurrence, may be said to have now undertaken in earnest the cares of sovereignty.
Finally, he advanced into Khorasan with an army which appears to have met with no opposition save at Nishapur and Turbet, both of which places were taken, and when it reached Meshed, Nadir Mirza tendered his submission, which was accepted.
Educated at first in Tus, then in Jorjan, and again in Tit's, he went to college at Nishapur, where he studied under Juwaini (known as the Imam ul-Haramain) until 1085, when he visited the celebrated vizier Nizam ul-Mulk, who appointed him to a professorship in his college at Bagdad in 1091.
At the wish of the sultan Malik Shah he again undertook professorial work, this time in the college of Nizam ul-Mulk at Nishapur, but returned soon after to Tus, where he died in December 'tit.
Of the last, occurring mainly in the north, the chief are the longitudinal valley stretching from near the Herat frontier through Meshed, Kuchan and Shirvan to Bujnurd, the Derrehgez district, which lies on the northern skirt of the outer range projecting into the Akhal Tekkeh domain, now Russian territory, and the districts of Nishapur and Sabzevar which lie south of the Binalud and Jagatai ranges.
The administrative divisions of the province are: I, Nishapur; 2, Sabzevar; 3, Jovain; 4, Asfarain; 5, Bujnurd; 6, Kuchan; 7, Derrehgez; 8, Kelat; 9, Chinaran; io, Meshed; i i, Jam; 12, Bakharz; 13, Radkan; 14, Serrakhs; 15, Sar-i-jam; 16, Barn and Safiabad; 17, Turbet i Haidari; 18, Turshiz; 19, Khaf; 20, Tun and Tabbas; 21, Kain; 22, Seistan.