NIRVANA, the term in Buddhist theology, meaning literally " blowing out " or " dying out," Skt.
East of Bamian, representing Sakya Buddha entering Nirvana, i.e.
Seeing Kassapa, who as the chronicle puts it, was as well known to them as the banner of the city, the people at first doubted who was the teacher and who the disciple, but Kassapa put an end to their hesitation by stating that he had now given up his belief in the efficacy of sacrifices either great or small; that Nirvana was a state of rest to be attained only by a change of heart; and that he had become a disciple of the Buddha.
The Buddha, on the other hand, obtained Nirvana in his 35th year, under the Bo tree, after he had abandoned penance; and through the rest of his life he spoke of penance as quite useless from his point of view.
The theosophic "Path" to the final goal of emancipation or Nirvana, is in a great measure derived from the Buddhist literature, available to the English-speaking peoples through numerous excellent translations, more especially those of Professor T.
"I am now on my way," says the Buddha, "to the city of Benares, to beat the drum of the Ambrosia (to set up the light of the doctrine of Nirvana) in the darkness of the world!"
Towards the end of this conversation, when it was evening, Ananda broke down and went aside to weep, but the Buddha missed him, and sending for him comforted him with the promise of Nirvana, and repeated what he had so often said before about the impermanence of all things, - "0 Ananda!
Many have already followed it, and conquering the lust and pride and anger of their own hearts, have become free from ignorance and doubt and wrong belief, have entered the calm state of universal kindliness, and have reached Nirvana even in this life.
Perhaps the most frequent in the Buddhist text is Arahatship," the state of him who is worthy "; and the one exclusively used in Europe is Nirvana, the" dying out "; that is, the dying out in the heart of the fell fire of the three cardinal sins - sensuality, ill-will and stupidity.'° The choice of this term by European writers, a choice made long before anyof the Buddhist canonical texts had been published or translated, has had a most unfortunate result.
Themselves giving up this world as hopeless, and looking for salvation in the next, they naturally thought the Buddhists must do the same, and in the absence of any authentic scriptures, to correct the mistake, they interpreted Nirvana, in terms of their own belief, as a state to be reached after death.
(5) First long episode; the going forth, years of study and penance, attainment of Nirvana and Buddhahood, and conversion of first five converts; text in Majjhima, all together at ii.
It is related of the founder himself, the Maha-vira, that after twelve years' penance he thus obtained Nirvana (Jacobi, Jaina Sutras, i.