Handlooms and small spinTextiles ning establishments have, in the silk industry, given place to large establishments with steam looms. The production of raw silk at least tripled itself between 1875 and 1900, and the value of the silks woven in Italy, estimated in 1890 to be 2,200,000, is now, on account of the development of the export trade calculated to be almost 4,000,000.
The black "Kaisow" teas are brought from the Ho-kow district, where they are grown, down the river Kin to Juy-hung on the lake, and the Siu-ho connects by a navigable stream I-ning Chow, in the neighbourhood of which city the best black teas of this part of China are produced, with Wu-ching, the principal mart of trade on the lake.
Ku-pei K`ow to the north-east, and after continuing that course as far as Fung-ning turns in a north-westerly direction to Dolonnor; a third striking due east by way of Tung-chow and Yung-Ong Fu to Shan-hai Kwan, the point where the Great Wall terminates on the coast; and a fourth which trends in a south-westerly direction to Pao-ting Fu and on to Tai-yuen Fu in Shan-si.
City of the Peaceful Waves), a great city of China, the principal emporium of trade in the province of Chehkiang, standing in a fine plain bounded by mountains towards the west, on the left bank of the Ning-po river, about 16 M.
Ning-po is surrounded by a fine old wall, 25 ft.
In ascending the river a stranger's eye is first caught by the numerous huge ice-houses with high thatched roofs and by a tall white tower - the T'ien-feng-t'a or Ning-po pagoda or obelisk - which rises to a height of 160 ft.
In spite of the powerful competition of Shanghai, Ning-po has a valuable foreign trade.
Missions are maintained in Ning-po by the Roman Catholic church, by the Church Missionary Society (1848), the American Presbyterians, the Reformed Wesleyans, the China Inland Mission (1857), &c. A mission hospital was instituted in 1843.
After the storming of Chenhai - the fortified town at the mouth of the river - on the 10th of October 1841, the British forces quietly took possession of Ning-po on the 12th.
With the exception of a small portion of the great delta plain, which extends across the frontier from the province of Kiang-su, and in which are situated the famous cities of Hu Chow, Ka-hing, Hang-chow, Shao-Sing and Ning-po, the province forms a portion of the Nan-shan of south-eastern China, and is hilly throughout.
The hilly portion of the province furnishes large supplies of tea, and in the plain which extends along the coast, north of Ning-po, a great quantity of silk is produced.
The principal cities are Hang-chow, which is famed for the beauty of its surroundings, Ning-po, which has been frequented by foreign ships ever since the Portuguese visited it in the 16th century, and Wenchow.
Opposite Ning-po, at a distance of about 50 m., lies the island of Chusan, the largest of a group bearing that general name.
Foreign commerce, which of course was contraband, being contrary to all Spanish laws, was active by the begin ning of the 1 th century.