By Bornu, which is partly in the British protectorate of Nigeria and partly in the German protectorate of Cameroon.
(See NIGERIA: History; and SoKoTo.) Consult the Travels of Heinrich Barth (new ed., London, 1890); Hausaland, by C. H.
Robinson (London, 1896); Northern Nigeria, by Sir F.
Geographical Journal (London, 1904); A Tropical Dependency, by Lady Lugard (London, 1905); the Colonial Office Reports on Northern Nigeria from 1902 onward, and other works cited under NIGERIA.
These native cloths are exceedingly durable, and many of them are ornamented by using dyed yarns and in other ways: Southern Nigeria (Lagos) and northern Nigeria are the most important cotton countries amongst the British possessions on the coast.
Northern Nigeria is the seat of a very large native cotton industry, to supply the demand for cotton robes for the Mahommedan races inhabiting the country.
Northern Nigeria contributes to the cotton exported from Lagos.
In Southern Nigeria the association has met with only slight success; in Northern Nigeria, a working arrangement was entered into with the Niger Company, and a small ginning establishment was set to work in February 1906.
Guggisberg since 1907 (1:125,000 and 1:200,000); southern and northern Nigeria are adequately represented on the maps of the general staff (1:250,000).
It is officially known as the Abeokuta province of the Southern Nigeria protectorate.
From the mouth of the Niger, and is of considerable commercial importance (see Nigeria and Kabba).
For this reason, amongst others, no census had been taken up to 1906 of Northern Rhodesia, the British possessions and protectorates of eastern Africa, or, again, of Nigeria and the protectorates attached to the West African colonies of Gambia, Sierra Leone and Lagos.
CALABAR (or OLD Calabar), a seaport of West Africa in the British protectorate of Southern Nigeria, on the left bank of the Calabar river in 4° 56' N., 8° 18' E., 5 m.
(See Nigeria for trade returns.)
Calabar estuary is mainly formed by the Cross river (q.v.), but receives also the waters of the Calabar and other streams. The Rio del Rey creek at the eastern end of the estuary marks the boundary between (British) Nigeria and (German) Cameroon.
In Nigeria the Hausa tribes are coming to be better known, and to respond to the Christian teaching.
This officer reached Cape Coast from Nigeria on the 26th of May.
NIGERIA, a British protectorate in West Africa occupying the lower basin of the Niger and the country between that river and Lake Chad, including the Fula empire (i.e.
The temperature in the central part of the protectorate is much the same average as at the coast, but the range is far greater, varying from a shade minimum of 59° to a shade maximum of 107 0.1 The rainfall is much scantier on the plateaus than in the maritime regions, averaging in Northern Nigeria about 50 in.
The animals of Nigeria include the elephant, lion, leopard, giraffe, hyena, West-African buffalo, many kinds of antelope and gazelle and smaller game.
The population of Nigeria is estimated at 15,000,000.
In the northern parts of Nigeria the inhabitants are of more mixed blood, the negro substratum having been to a great extent driven out by the northern races of the continent.
The most important race in Northern Nigeria is that of the Hausa (q.v.), among whom the superior classes adopted Mahommedanism in the 13th and 14th centuries.
To attempt any complete list of the tribes inhabiting Northern Nigeria would be vain.
The chief ports are Lagos (q.v.), capital of Southern Nigeria, with a population of about 50,000; Calabar (q.v.), pop. about 15,000, known as Old Calabar and Duke Town, on the Calabar river; Opobo, Bonny Town and Brass Town, all on the rivers of the same name.
Above Lokoja, the river terminus of the Northern Nigeria railway; Egga, Mureji (at the Kaduna confluence), Jebba and Bussa.
The administrative headquarters of Northern Nigeria are at Zungeru, on the Kaduna river, in 6° 09' 40" E., 9 0 48' 32" N.
Gauge was built (1901-1902)in Northern Nigeria between Barijuko on theKaduna and the capital, Zungeru, and proved most successful and lucrative.
- Throughout Nigeria local trade is active and has shown rapid increase under British rule.
The value of the trade (imports and exports) of Southern Nigeria (exclusive of Lagos) increased from £1,566,000 in1894-1895to £3,464,000 in 1905.
In Northern Nigeria up to the moment of the British occupation the foreign trade was chiefly in the hands of Tripoli Arabs whose caravans crossed the desert at great risk and expense, and carried to the markets of Kuka and Kano tea, sugar and other European goods, taking away the skins and feathers which constituted the principal articles of export to the Mediterranean coast.
Inquiries made under the auspices of the British Cotton Growing Association have led to the conclusion that Northern Nigeria offers the most promising field contained within the empire for the growth of cotton required to render Lancashire looms independent of foreign supplies.
Steps have been taken to stimulate the native industry, and it is hoped that cotton may take the place in Northern Nigeria which palm oil and kernels occupy in the coast zone.
Major Dixon Denham and Captain Hugh Clapperton entered the country now known as Northern Nigeria from the north in 1823, crossing the desert from Tripoli.
The principal treaties relating to the German frontiers were negotiated in 1886 and 1893: the Anglo-French treaties were more numerous, those of 1890 and 1898, which laid down the main lines of division between French and British possessions on the northern and western frontiers of Nigeria, having been supplemented by many lesser rectifications of frontier.
(See Africa, § 5.) It was not until 1909 that the whole of the frontier between Nigeria and the French and German possessions had been definitely demarcated.
In these circumstances it was judged advisable to place the territories of the Royal Niger Company, to which the general name of Nigeria had been given, under the direct control of the crown.
The southern portion of the territories was amalgamated with the Niger Coast Protectorate, the whole district taking the name of the Protectorate of Southern Nigeria, while the northern portion, extending from a line drawn slightly above 7° N.
In Northern Nigeria in 1900 the establishment of British authority remained still to be effected.
The transference of influence from the company to the government was officially effected on the 1st of January 1900, on which day the Union Jack was hoisted at Lokoja, and the Northern Nigeria formation of a local administration was entered upon.
The emir of Sokoto held the position of religious as well as political head of all the lesser states of Northern Nigeria, and in response to friendly overtures on the part of the British administration had declared that between Sokoto and Great Britain there could be nothing but war.
On the contrary it was presumed with justice that their overthrow would be hailed Progress in Southern Nigeria, 1885= 1906.
These conditions were that all rights of conquest acquired by the Fulani throughout Northern Nigeria passed to Great Britain, that for the future every sultan and emir and principal officer of state should be appointed by Great Britain, that the emirs and chiefs so appointed should obey the laws of the British government, that they should no longer buy and sell slaves, nor enslave people, that they should import no firearms, except flint-locks, that they should enforce no sentences in their courts of law which were contrary to humanity, and that the British government should in future hold rights in land and taxation.
Throughout Northern Nigeria all chiefs, Mahommedan and Pagan, now hold their appointments under the British crown and take the oath of allegiance to the British sovereign.
The defensive force - the Northern Nigeria Regiment of the West African Frontier Force - is constituted by law, and the proclamation contains a military code based on the Army Act with modifications necessary in local circumstances.
This was followed in February 1906 by the amalgamation of the two administrations under the style of " the Colony and Protectorate of Southern Nigeria," with headquarters at Lagos town.
In Northern Nigeria, which continued for the time to be a separate protectorate, Sir Frederick Lugard was, at the beginning of 1907, succeeded as high commissioner by Sir Percy Girouard.
In view of the approaching unification of Southern and Northern Nigeria, the money needed, about £1,250,000, was raised as a loan by Southern Nigeria.