Willoughby's was old hardwood and brass under 70 years of bad breath and nicotine, catering to a tenth the crowd of bygone days.
NICOTINE, C10H14N2, an alkaloid, found with small quantities of nicotimine, C 19 H 14 N 2, nicoteine, C10H12N2, and nicotelline, C 10 H 8 N 2, in tobacco.
Nicotine may be recognized by the addition of a drop of 30% formaldehyde, the mixture being allowed to stand for one hour and the solid residue then moistened by a drop of concentrated sulphruic acid, when an intense rose-red colour is produced (I.
The constitution of nicotine was established by A.
With bromine in acetic acid solution at ordinary temperature, nicotine yields a perbromide, C10H10Br2N20 HBr 3, which with sulphur dioxide, followed by potash, gives dibromcotinine, C10H10Br2N20, from which cotinine, C10H12N20, is obtained by distillation over zinc dust.
By heating nicotine with bromine in hydrobromic acid solution for some hours at 100° C., dibromticonine hydrobromide, C10H8N2Br202 HBr, results.
By distillation over lime, the methyl group is removed from the pyridine ring, and the resulting a- pyridyl-Nmethylpyrrol gives i-nicotine on reduction.
This base is resolved into its active components by d-tartaric acid, l-nicotine-d-tartrate crystallizing out first.
Nicoteine is a liquid which boils at 267° C. It is separated from the other alkaloids of the group by distilling off the nicotine and nicotimine in steam and then fractionating the residue.
In recent years the growth of the leaf under cloth tents has greatly increased, as it has been abundantly proved that the product thus secured is much more valuable - lighter in colour and weight, finer in texture, with an increased proportion of wrapper leaves, and more uniform qualities, and with lesser amounts of cellulose, nicotine, gums and resins.
The peculiar properties of snuff are dependent on the presence of free nicotine, free ammonia and the aromatic principles developed during fermentation.
These pests can be kept in check by syringing with nicotine, soft-soap and quassia solutions, or by "vaporising" two or three evenings in succession, afterwards syringing the plants with clear tepid water.
Piperine, conine, atropine, belladonine, cocaine, hyoscyamine and nicotine have been already synthesized; the constitution of several others requires confirmation, while there remain many important alkaloids - quinine, morphine, strychnine, &c. - whose constitution remains unknown.
(1) Pyridine group. Piperine; conine; trigonelline; arecaidine; guvacine; pilocarpine; cytisine; nicotine; sparteine.
It is a decomposition product of various alkaloids (nicotine, sparteine, cinchonine, &c.), being formed when they are strongly heated either alone or with zinc dust.
Pictet (Ber., 1897, 30, p. 2117) obtained it by oxidizing nicotine methyl hydroxide with potassium permanganate.