The former were led by Leisler, the latter by Peter Schuyler (1657-1724), Nicholas Bayard (c. 1644-1707), Stephen van Cortlandt (1643-1700),William Nicolls (16 57-- 1723) and other representatives of the aristocratic Hudson Valley families.
The duke appointed Colonel Richard Nicolls governor and placed him in command of an expedition to effect its conquest.
Nicolls won over the burgomaster of New Amsterdam and other prominent citizens by the favourable terms which he offered, and Stuyvesant was forced, without fighting, into a formal surrender on the 8th of September.
The English executive, consisting of a governor and council, was much like the Dutch, but Nicolls, by his conciliatory spirit, made his administration more agreeable than Stuyvesant's.
Nicolls resigned the governorship in 1668, but his successor, Francis Lovelace, continued his policy - autocratic government, arbitrary in form but mild in practice, and progressive in the matter of religious toleration.
Granted to his brother, the duke of York, the territory between the Connecticut river and Delaware Bay, and Colonel Richard Nicolls with a fleet of four ships and about three or four hundred men was sent out to take possession.
In 1654 the municipal privileges of Brooklyn as well as of two of the other towns were enlarged, but with Dutch rule there was general discontent, and when, in 1664, Colonel Richard Nicolls came to overthrow it and establish English rule these towns offered no resistance.
Nicolls erected the region composed of Long Island, Staten Island and Westchester into a county under the name of Yorkshire, and divided it into three ridings, of which Staten Island, the present county of Kings, and the town of Newtown in Queens, formed one.
Messrs Nicolls and Eglington, joint authors of The Sportsman in South Africa, state that the serval is fairly common in South Central Africa, frequenting the thick bush near rivers, and preying on the smaller antelopes, guinea-fowls and francolins.
Against the Puritan governments of New England, among them Massachusetts' extension of its jurisdiction over the towns of Maine and New Hampshire, the persecution of the Quakers, and the denial of the right of appeal to the crown, and in 1664 a royal commission, consisting of Richard Nicolls, Samuel Maverick, Robert Carr and George Cartwright, was sent over to settle disputes and secure some measure of imperial control, but Massachusetts, the chief offender; successfully baffled all attempts at interference, and the mission was almost a complete failure.
Nicolls and W.
It contains a monument to Richard Nicolls (1624-1672), who, under the patronage of the duke of York, brother to Charles II., to whom the king had granted the Dutch North American colony of New Netherlands, received the submission of its chief town, New Amsterdam, in 1664, and became its first English governor, the town taking the name of New York.
Nicolls perished in the action between the English and Dutch fleets at Solebay, and the ball which killed him is preserved on his tomb.
An expedition was sent from England in May, under the command of Richard Nicolls, and in the following August the English flag floated over New Amsterdam.
While the expedition commanded by Nicolls was still at sea, the duke of York, by deeds of lease and release, transferred to Lord John Berkeley, baron of Stratton, and Sir George Carteret, all that part of his new possessions extending eastward from the Delaware Bay and river to the Atlantic Ocean and the Hudson river, and northward from Cape May to a line drawn from the northernmost branch of the Delaware, " which is 41° 40' lat.," to the Hudson river in 41° N.
In the meantime Governor Nicolls of New York, ignorant of the grant to Berkeley and Carteret, had approved certain Indian sales of land to settlers within New Jersey, and had confirmed their titles to tracts in what later became Elizabethtown, Middletown and Shrewsbury.
At the next session, in the following November, the towns of Shrewsbury and Middletown declared that they held their grants from Governor Nicolls, and that they were consequently exempt from any quit-rents the proprietors might claim.
The site of New Rochelle is part of a purchase by Thomas Pell in 1654 and of a grant to him by Richard Nicolls in 1666; it was sold in 1689 to Jacob Leisler.
Elizabeth was settled in 1665 by a company from Long Island for whom the land had been purchased from the Indians and a grant had been obtained from Richard Nicolls as agent for the duke of York.
The duke of York declared that the grants made by Nicolls were null and void; the king enjoined obedience to the proprietors, and quiet was restored.
The Quakers' title to West Jersey, however, still bore the cloud resulting from the Dutch conquest, and the duke of York had desired to recover all of his original grant to Berkeley and Carteret ever since Governor Nicolls had protested against it.
The next four decades were years of development disturbed, however, by friction between the assembly and the royal governors, and by bitter disputes, accompanied by much rioting, with the proprietors concerning land-titles (1744-1749) Independence of the absentee landlords was again claimed by virtue of the grants made by Nicolls nearly a century before.