LEON, the capital of the department of Leon, Nicaragua, an episcopal see, and the largest city in the republic, situated midway between Lake Managua and the Pacific Ocean, 50 m.
Enterprises: (1) Foreign missions in Labrador, Alaska, Canada, California, West Indies, Nicaragua, Demerara, Surinam, Cape Colony, Kaffraria, German East Africa, North Queensland, West Himalaya.
Belt, A Naturalist in Nicaragua; H.
DOUROUCOULI, apparently the native name (perhaps derived from their cries) of a small group of American monkeys ranging from Nicaragua to Amazonia and eastern Peru, and forming the genus Nyctipithecus.
The loss of Nicaragua rubber in drying is estimated at 15%.
A.) Mosquito Coast And Reserve (MosQuIT1A or RESERvA Mosquita), a division of the republic of Nicaragua, officially styled the department of Zelaya.
Although its name is sometimes applied to the whole eastern seaboard of Nicaragua - and even to Mosquitia in Honduras, i.e.
It is the seat of a Moravian mission, and has a good harbour, with regular steamship services to Greytown in Nicaragua, and to New Orleans.
This caused great dissatisfaction among the Indians, who shortly afterwards revolted; and on the 28th of January 1860 Great Britain and Nicaragua concluded the treaty of Managua, which transferred to Nicaragua the suzerainty over the entire Caribbean coast from Cape Gracias a Dios to Greytown, but granted autonomy to the Indians in the more limited Mosquito Reserve (the area described above).
But on his death in 1864 Nicaragua refused to recognize his successor.
The reserve nevertheless continued to be governed by an elected chief, aided by an administrative council, which met in Bluefields; and the Indians denied that the suzerainty of Nicaragua connoted any right of interference with their internal affairs.
The question was referred for arbitration to the emperor of Austria, whose award published in 1880, upheld the contention of the Indians, and affirmed that the suzerainty of Nicaragua was limited by their right of self-government.
After enjoying almost complete autonomy for fourteen years, the Indians voluntarily surrendered their privileged position, and on the 10th of November 1894 their territory was formally incorporated in that of the republic of Nicaragua, as the department of Zelaya.
See "A Bibliography of the Mosquito Coast of Nicaragua," by Courtney de Kalb, in Bulletin of the American Geog.
The former is found in Mexico, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama; the latter in Guatemala, Nicaragua and Costa Rica.
About 1530 he appears to have revisited the Spanish court, but on what precise errand is not known; the confusion concerning this period of his life extends to the time when, after visits to Mexico, Nicaragua, Peru and Guatemala, he undertook an expedition in 1537 into Tuzulutlan, the inhabitants of which were, chiefly through his tact, peaceably converted to Christianity, mass being celebrated for the first time amongst them in the newly founded town of Rabinal in 1538.
CHINANDEGA, or Chinendega, the capital of the department of Chinandega in western Nicaragua, 10 m.
By Nicaragua, E.
Of the southern shores of the river San Juan and of Lake Nicaragua, terminates at Salinas Bay on the Pacific; its southern frontier skirts the valley of the Sixola or Tiliri, strikes south-east along the crests of the Talamanca Mountains as far as 9° N., and then turns sharply south, ending in Burica Point.
The transcontinental railway from Limon to Puntarenas was begun in 1871, and forms the nucleus of a system intended ultimately to connect all the fertile parts of the country, and to join the railways of Nicaragua and Panama.
In 1897 the state joined the Greater Republic of Central America, established in 1895 by Honduras, Nicaragua and Salvador, but dissolved in 1898.
The boundary question between Costa Rica and Nicaragua was referred to the arbitration of the president of the United States, who gave his award in 1888, confirming a treaty of 1858; further difficulties arising from the work of demarcation were settled by treaty in 1896.
The investigations made by Dr Walter Lehmann in Central America (1907-1909), prove that these Mexican elements were extended through Guatemala, Salvador, a small part of Nicaragua (the territory of the Nicaraos) and on several places in the peninsula of Nicoya (Costa Rica) amongst the autochthonous Chorotega or Mangue.
In the nearly unexplored central part of Nicaragua Dr Lehmann found fragments of painted polychrome clay pottery similar to objects known from the Ulloa Valley (Honduras) amongst other ceramic pieces which seem to have been left by the ancestors of the Sumo Indians, now extinct in that territory.
It is possible that these remains of Mayan pottery came into central Nicaragua as articles of commerce.
It is significant that Mayan civilization cannot be traced in any other part of Nicaragua or Costa Rica.
The Sumo-Misquito Indians occupied the Atlantic coast and the interior of Nicaragua and Honduras, where they still live in small tribes; a dialect of the hitherto unknown Sumo languages.
Is the Matagalpan, now extinct in Nicaragua, and nearly identical with the Matagalpan is the language spoken by the Indians of Cacaopera in Salvador (Ultra-Lempa territory).
A linguistic relationship can be established between all the Indian languages spoken on the Atlantic coast and in the interior of Nicaragua and Honduras.
It may be possible either that these tribes are the autochthonous inhabitants who dwelt in Guatemala, Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua before the immigration of the prehistoric Maya peoples; or else that they invaded this region after it had been deserted by a prehistoric oriental branch of the Maya family.
The Chorotega race had its centre in Nicaragua (Pacific coast) and at one time extended thence as far as Guanacaste (Costa Rica); at another time it extended as far as Honduras (actual department of Choluteca) and into eastern Salvador as far as the state of Chiapas in Mexico, where the Chorotega penetrated amongst the Mixe.
If we can be sure - and the linguistic evidence admits of no doubt - that the Chorotega had their centre in Nicaragua and thence extended north-westwards, it may be hoped that Chorotegan remains will be found in the vast territory occupied for many centuries by the Maya peoples in the Pacific part of Guatemala.
1854).1 Two filibustering expeditions at this time - one by William Walker, afterwards notorious in Nicaragua, in tower California 1 Santa Anna tried to get back to politics in Mexico after Maximilian's fall, without success.
As an avowed expansionist, Pierce sympathized with the filibuster government set up in Nicaragua by William Walker, and finally accorded it recognition.
GUATEMALA (sometimes incorrectly written Guatimala), a name now restricted to the republic of Guatemala and to its chief city, but formerly given to a captaincy-general of Spanish America, which included the fifteen provinces of Chiapas, Suchitepeques, Escuintla, Sonsonate, San Salvador, Vera Paz and Peten, Chiquimula, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Totonicapam, Quezaltenango, Sololá, Chimaltenango and Sacatepeques, - or, in other words, the whole of Central America (except Panama) and part of Mexico.
Honduras now joined with Salvador, and Nicaragua and Costa Rica with Guatemala.
Ocos was captured by his lieutenant, General Castillo, and the revolution speedily became a war, in which Honduras, Costa Rica and Salvador were openly involved against Guatemala, while Nicaragua was hostile.
Its terms were embodied in a treaty signed (28th of September) by representatives of the four belligerent states, Nicaragua taking no part in the negotiations.
The third Pan-American Conference was held in the months of July and August 1906, and was attended by the United States, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Salvador and Uruguay.
For example between Costa Rica and Nicaragua by a treaty of the 15th of April 1858 the parties agreed that " on no account whatever, not even in case of war," should " any act of hostility be allowed between them in the port of San Juan del Norte nor on the river of that name nor on Lake Nicaragua " (art.
Nicaragua, June 28, 1909.
„ Nicaragua, July 17, 1909.
GRANADA, the capital of the department of Granada, Nicaragua; 32 m.
Granada is built on the north-western shore of Lake Nicaragua, of which it is the principal port.
Belt, The Naturalist in Nicaragua (2nd ed.
Of the various states of Central and South America, Nicaragua has the American Order of San Juan or Grey Town, founded in 1857, in three classes; and Venezuela that of the Bust of Bolivar, 1854, five classes; the ribbon is yellow, blue and red.
The capital was the center of the commercial activities.
In Nicaragua the latex is collected in April, when the old leaves begin to fall and the new ones are appearing, during which time the latex is richest.
Dr Lehmann's archaeological and linguistic researches, especially in Salvador and Nicaragua, also enabled him to prove another very important fact, viz.
NICARAGUA, a republic of Central America, bounded on the N.
Nicaragua forms an irregular equilateral triangle with its base stretching for 280 m.
Along the Caribbean Sea from Cape Gracias a Dios southwards to the San Juan delta, and its apex at the Coseguina volcano, on the Bay of Fonseca, which separates Nicaragua on the Pacific side from Salvador.
Of the San Juan river and Lake Nicaragua, ` as far as a point parallel to the centre of the western shore of the lake.
The coasts of Nicaragua are strikingly different in configuration.
Between these two extremes the chief cones, proceeding southwards, are: the Maribios chain, comprising El Viejo (5840 ft.), Santa Clara, Telica, Orota, Las Pilas,'Axosco, Momotombo (4127 ft.), all crowded close together between the Bay of Fonesca and Lake Managua; Masaya or Popocatepac (which was active in 1670, 1782, 1857 and 5902, and attains a height of 2972 ft.), and Mombacho (4593 ft.), near Granada; lastly, in Lake Nicaragua the two islands of Zapatera and Ometepe or Omotepec with its twin peaks Ometepe (5 6 43 ft.) and Madera.
In the great lacustrine depression of Nicaragua is collected all the drainage from the eastern versant of the volcanic mountains, from the sheer western escarpment of the main cordillera, and from a large area of northern Costa Rica.
After the rains a portion of its overflow escapes southwards into the lower and larger Lake Nicaragua, through the Panaloya channel.
The surface of Lake Nicaragua after the rains is 135 ft.
Under the influence of the intermittent trade-winds Lake Nicaragua rises and falls regularly, whence the popular notion that it was a tidal lake.
The hydrography of Nicaragua is curious in two respects: as in the Amazonian region all the large rivers flow east, none escaping to the Pacific; and the main watershed does not correspond with the main cordillera, which is inferior in this particular both to the volcanic mountains and to the plateau region.
Nicaragua comes within the zone of the wet northeast trade-winds, which sweep inland from the Atlantic. The rainfall is heavy along the west side of the lacustrine basin, with an annual mean at Rivas of 102 in., but this figure is sometimes greatly exceeded on the east coast, where rain is common even in the dry season.
Earthquakes are felt at times on the Pacific slope, but in Nicaragua they are less violent than in the neighbouring countries.
The development of Nicaragua, unlike that of.