By this means it was able to defy both the Seljuks and the Ottomans, and to maintain its independence against the emperors of Nicaea and Constantinople.
In the 13th century the island stood as a rule under the control of Italian adventurers, who were, however, at times compelled to acknowledge the overlordship of the emperors of Nicaea, and failed to protect it against the depredations of Turkish corsairs.
Before the Diocletian persecution; others for a date between 303 and 314, after the persecution, but before the synod of Arles; still others for a date between the synod of Arles and the council of Nicaea, 325.
He was chosen emperor in his forty-third year by the officers of the army at Nicaea in Bithynia in 364, and shortly afterwards named his brother Valens colleague with him in the empire.
The first trace of system is in the limited right of appeal given by the first oecumenical council of Nicaea and its provision that episcopal sentences or those of provincial synods on appeal were to be recognized throughout the world.
Hence the practice, immediately after Nicaea I., of superadding banishment by the emperor to synodical condemnation.
The dogmatic decrees of Nicaea I.
The appeal given by Nicaea I.
But the secular arm, from the time of Nicaea I., was in the habit of aiding spiritual decrees, as by banishing deposed bishops, and gradually by other ways, even with laymen.
Of the Lenten fast or Quadragesima, the first mention is in the fifth canon of the council of Nicaea (325), and from this time it is frequently referred to, but chiefly as a season of preparation for baptism, of absolution of penitents or of retreat and recollection.
3 The bishops who sat in the great councils of the 4th century were known as "the 318 fathers" of Nicaea, and "the 150 fathers" of Constantinople.
On the ground that it contravened the sixth canon of Nicaea and infringed the rights of Alexandria and Antioch.
A final settlement of the dispute was one among the other reasons which led Constantine to summon the council of Nicaea in 325.
Before this time Christianity had made its way into the oasis, for among the fathers present at the Council of Nicaea (A.D.
There were Seljukian garrisons in towns like Nicaea and Antioch, ready to offer an obstinate resistance to the crusaders; and here and there in the country there were Seljukian armies, either cantoned or nomadic. But the inhabitants of the towns were often hostile to the garrisons, and over wide tracts of country there were no forces at all.
Accordingly, when the crusaders had captured the town at Nicaea, and defeated the Seljukian field-army at Dorylaeum their way lay clear before them through Asia Minor.
Their first operation was the siege of Nicaea, defended by a Seljuk garrison, but eventually captured, with the aid of Alexius, after a month's siege (June 18).
After the capture of Nicaea, the field-army of Kilij Arslan had to be met.
The Crusades began with the Seljukian Turk planted at Nicaea; they ended with the Ottoman Turk entrenched by the Danube.
He took Aidos, Nicomedia, Hereke, and, after a siege, Nicaea; Tarakli and Gemlik fell to his arms, and soon the whole of the shore of the Marmora up to Kartal was conquered, and the Byzantines retained on the continent of Asia Minor only Ala Shehr and Biga.
He received his education in Nicaea at a monastery of which he later became the abbot, though not in orders.
Lascaris to the position of patriarch at Nicaea, and four years later, on that emperor's death, became joint guardian of his son John.
He negotiated with Alexis Comnenus at Constantinople, re-established at Nicaea some discipline among the crusaders, caused the siege of Antioch to be raised and died in that city of the plague on the 1st of August 1098.
2 By his history of the Council of Nicaea he made a great contribution to the education of the Persian Church in the development of Christian doctrine.
About 320 he was bishop of Beroea, and he was patriarch of Antioch before the council of Nicaea in 325.
150-235), Roman historian, was born at Nicaea in Bithynia.
He was raised a second time to the consulship by Alexander Severus, in 229; but on the plea of ill health soon afterwards retired to Nicaea, where he died.
325 Revision by the Council of Nicaea, (Caesarea).
362 Cyril would find " a natural occasion for the revision of the public creed by the skilful insertion of some of the conciliar language, including the term which proclaimed the restoration of full communion with the champions of Nicaea, and other phrases and clauses adapted for impressing on the people positive truth."
He asks the emperor to sanction the repair of the ancient baths at Prusa, the building of an aqueduct at Nicomedia and a theatre at Nicaea, and the covering in of a stream that has become a public nuisance at Amastris.
It was on his initiative that this synod condemned the heresy of adoptianism and the worship of images, which had been restored in 787 by the second council of Nicaea; and at the same time that council was declared to have been superfluous.
Already at the Council of Nicaea in 325 the Pauliani were put outside the Church and condemned to be rebaptized.
Afterwards invested with the title of "despot," he was finally proclaimed joint-emperor and crowned alone at Nicaea on the 1st of January 1260.
Alexius was relegated to a monastery at Nicaea, where he died on some date unknown.
The Persian Armenians as late as the 6th century had not heard of the faith of Nicaea, and only then received it from the catholicus Babken.
This took place at the fist oecumenical council, which was convened in Nicaea in 3 25.
Although defeated at the council of Nicaea, the Arians were by no means subdued.
The councils were also quoted, and especially that of Nicaea, which does not itself mention the question, but certain texts of which contained the famous gloss: Ecclesia romana semper habuit primatum.
The second and much more serious host of warriors, led by Godfrey of Bouillon, he conducted also into Asia, promising to supply them with provisions in return for an oath of homage, and by their victories recovered for the Empire a number of important cities and islands - Nicaea, Chios, Rhodes, Smyrna, Ephesus, Philadelphia, Sardis, and in fact most of Asia Minor (1097-1099).
Among the first of those whom we know to have attached importance to the placing of relics in churches is Ambrose of Milan (Ep. 22), and the 7th general council of Nicaea (787) forbade the consecration of churches in which relics were not present, under pain of ex communication.
Acknowledged by the Turkish amirs of Asia Minor, he took up his residence in Nicaea, and defeated the first bands of crusaders under Walter the Penniless and others (1096); but, on the arrival of Godfrey of Bouillon and his companions, he was prudent enough to leave his capital in order to attack them as they were besieging Nicaea.
He suffered, however, two defeats in the vicinity, and Nicaea surrendered on the 23rd of June 1097.