Stavanger is the first port of call for northward-bound passenger steamers from Hull and Newcastle, and has regular services from all the Norwegian coast towns, from Hamburg, &c. A railway runs south along the wild and desolate coast of Jaederen, one of the few low and unprotected shores in Norway, the scene of many wrecks.
It has also been conferred during the closing years of the 19th century by letters patent on other cities - Birmingham, Liverpool, Manchester, Bristol, Sheffield, Leeds, Cardiff, Bradford, Newcastle-on-Tyne, Belfast, Cork.
These are, of course, mere infants compared with the Southampton Town Bowling Club, founded in 1299, which still uses the green on which it has played for centuries and possesses the quaint custom of describing its master, or president, as "sir," and are younger even than the Newcastle-onTyne club established in 1657.
In Edinburgh, Glasgow, and elsewhere in Scotland, and in London (through the county council), Newcastle and other English towns, the corporations have laid down greens in public parks and open spaces.
1696 Renatus Harris, Newcastle on-Tyne.
The principal cities and towns are Sydney (pop. 530,000), Newcastle, Broken Hill, Parramatta, Goulburn, Maitland, Bathurst, Orange, Lithgow, Tamworth, Grafton, Wagga and Albury, in New South Wales; Melbourne (pop. 511,900), Ballarat, Bendigo, Geelong, Eaglehawk, Warrnambool, Castlemaine, and Stawell in Victoria; Brisbane (pop. 128,000), Rockhampton, Maryborough, Townsville, Gympie, Ipswich, and Toowoomba in Queensland; Adelaide (pop. about 175,000), Port Adelaide and Port Pirie in South Australia; Perth (pop. 56,000), Fremantle, and Kalgoorlie in Western Australia; and Hobart (pop. 35,500) and Launceston in Tasmania.
The mines, however, are situated too far from the coast to permit of serious competition with Newcastle in an export trade, and the output is practically restricted to supplying local requirements.
A strike of the Newcastle miners, after lasting twenty-nine weeks, came to an end in January 1890, and throughout the rest of the year there was great unrest in Labour circles.
Essex was inactive near Oxford; in the west Sir Ralph Hopton had won a series of victories, and in the north Newcastle defeated the Fairfaxes at Adwalton Moor, and all Yorkshire except Hull was in his hands.
In 1885 Preece and Heaviside proved by experiments made at Newcastle that if two completely insulated circuits of square form, each side being 440 yds., were placed a quarter of a mile apart, telephonic speech was conveyed from one to the other by induction, and signals could be perceived even when they were separated by 1000 yds.
Jager has described coprolites from the alum-slate of Gaildorf in Wurttemberg; the fish-coprolites of Burdiehouse and of Newcastle-under-Lyme are of Carboniferous age.
Shortly afterwards, however, he retired both from parliament and from public life, professing his disgust at the party intrigues of politics, and devoted himself to conducting his newspaper, the Newcastle Daily Chronicle, and to his private business as a mine-owner.
In this capacity he exercised a wide influence on local opinion, and the revolt of the Newcastle electorate in later years against doctrinaire Radicalism was largely due to his constant preaching of a broader outlook on national affairs.
To judge, however, from the dedications, prologues and epilogues of his various plays, he seems to have enjoyed the patronage of the earl, afterwards duke, of Newcastle, "himself a muse" after a fashion, and Lord Craven, the supposed husband of the ex-queen of Bohemia.
Railways had their origin in the tramways (q.v.) or wagon-ways which at least as early as the middle of the 16th century were used in the mineral districts of England round Newcastle for the conveyance of coal from the pits to the river Tyne for shipment.
Richard Trevithick, indeed, had in 1804 tried a high-pressure steam locomotive, with smooth wheels, on a plate-way near Merthyr Tydvil, but it was found more expensive than horses; John Blenkinsop in 1811 patented an engine with cogged wheel and rack-rail which was used, with commercial success, to convey coal from his Middleton colliery to Leeds; William Hedley in 1813 built two locomotives - Puffing Billy and Wylam Dilly - for hauling coal from Wylam Colliery, near Newcastle; and in the following year George Stephenson's first engine, the Blucher, drew a train of eight loaded wagons, weighing 30 tons, at a speed of 4 m.
In 1646 the king joined the Scottish army; and, after retiring with them to Newcastle, he sent for Henderson, and discussed with him the two systems of church government in a number of papers.
15 1863; but his work and interests subsequently lay at Newcastle (where he served an apprenticeship as moulder at Robert Stephenson & Co.'s works), and in the county of Durham.
After a while he took a leading part in local affairs, and was for some years a member of the Newcastle city council, and Darlington borough council.
The ports in Great Britain at which foreign animals may be landed are Bristol, Cardiff, Glasgow, Hull, Liverpool, London; t 'Manchester and Newcastle-upon-Tyne.
In 1887, at Newcastle-on-Tyne, a prize of 200 went to a compound portable agricultural engine, one of £loo to a simple portable agricultural engine, and lesser prizes to a weighing-machine for horses and cattle, a weighing-machine for sheep and pigs, potato-raisers and one-man-power cream separators.
Some of his chief nobles - Thomas, earl of Lancaster, in 1321, and Sir Andrew Harclay, earl of Carlisle, in 1322 - entered into correspondence with the Scots, and, though Harclay's treason was detected and punished by his death, Edward was forced to make a truce of thirteen years at Newcastle on the 30th of May 1323, which Bruce ratified at Berwick.
In 1756 he was asked by Newcastle to become prime minister as the alternative to Pitt, but Granville, who perfectly understood why the offer was made, declined and supported Pitt.
Barium chloride is present in some natural waters, and when this is the case the interaction of sulphates results in a deposition of barytes, as has occurred in the pipes and water-boxes of the Newcastle-on-Tyne coal mines.
It has little trade, but is the principal tourist centre on this part of the coast, and the steamers from Hull and Newcastle, the Norwegian ports, Hamburg, Antwerp, &c., call here.
The bishops did not obtain possession until the reign of John, who during the interval in 1201 gave Hartlepool a charter granting the burgesses the same privileges that the burgesses of Newcastle enjoyed; in 1230 Bishop Richard Poor granted further liberties, including a gild merchant.
The establishment of shows at Newcastle-on-Tyne in June 1859 secured for dogs attention which had been denied them up to that time, although sportsmen had appreciated their value for centuries and there had been public coursing meetings since the reign of Charles I.
Robson (Newcastle-on-Tyne) and J.
He found Newcastle ripe for his message.
On his way to Newcastle that year Wesley visited Birstal, where John Nelson, the stone-mason, had already been working.
19 1870, the son of Sir Walter Runciman, 1st Bart., a Newcastle ship-owner.
There is more than one meaning of Newcastle discussed in the 1911 Encyclopedia.
It is the terminal station of a branch of the London & North-Western railway coming southward from Shrewsbury, and is a station on the main line of the Great Western running to Fishguard; it is also the terminus of a branch-line of the Great Western running to Newcastle-Emlyn.
Around Dundee and Newcastle the coals are bituminous.
North-east of Ladysmith are Dundee (2811) and Newcastle (2950).
Newcastle is also a mining town, but depends chiefly on its large trade in wool.
It is named after the duke of Newcastle who was secretary for the colonies in 1852 and 1859.
Utrecht (860) lies between Newcastle and Vryheid, and was one of the first towns founded by the Transvaal Boers.
The main line starts from Durban, and passing through Pietermaritzburg (71 m.), Ladysmith (190 m.) and Newcastle (268 m.) pierces the Drakensberg at Laing's Nek by a tunnel 2213 ft.
Besides the mines in the Newcastle and Dundee district there are extensive coal-fields at Hlobane in the Vryheid district and in Zululand (q.v.).
The chief towns - Durban; Maritzburg, Ladysmith, Newcastle and Dundee - are governed by municipal corporations and minor towns by local boards.
In this year (1886) the railway reached Ladysmith, and in 18 9 1 it was completed to the Transvaal frontier at Charlestown, the section from Ladysmith northward opening up the Dundee and Newcastle coalfields.
Newcastle was next occupied by the Boers unopposed, and on the 10th of October occurred the battle of Talana Hill outside Dundee.
Ten days previous to the disaster at Majuba Sir Evelyn Wood had arrived at Newcastle with reinforcements.
The influence of Newcastle and Sandwich, however, was too strong for him; he was thwarted and over-reached; and in 1748 he resigned the seals, and returned to cards and his books with the admirable composure which was one of his most striking characteristics.
In 1893 a biography, including numerous letters first published from the Newcastle Papers, was issued by Mr W.
Mr Thornycroft's other memorials, such as the " Queen Victoria Memorial " (Karachi), the " War Memorial " (at Durban) and the " Armstrong Memorial " (at Newcastle), are well known, and his portrait statuary and medallions are numerous.
In the 15th and 16th centuries the town was a leading seat of the salt industry ("salt to Dysart" was the equivalent of "coals to Newcastle"), but the salt-pans have been abandoned for a considerable period.
Glass-cutting was carried on at works in Birmingham, Bristol, Belfast, Cork, Dublin, Glasgow, London, Newcastle, Stourbridge, Whittington and Waterford.
In England the chief centres of the industry were Bristol, Birmingham, London, Manchester, Newcastle, Stourbridge and York.