NEVADA (a Spanish word meaning " snow-clad " or " snowy land," originally applied to a snow-capped mountain range on the Pacific slope), one of the far western states of the American Union, lying between 35° and 42° N.
Nevada is the most sparsely settled state of the Union.
In the north it is due to the fact that the winds from the Pacific lose most of their moisture, especially in winter, on the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada; in the south it is due to the fact that the region lies in a zone of calms, and light, variable winds.
There are many permanent lakes without outlet fed by the mountain streams; others, snow fed, occur among the Sierra Nevada; and some in the larger mountain masses of the middle region.
Deprives the winds from the Pacific of nearly all their moisture before they reach the Great Basin, the climate of Nevada is characterized by an excessive dryness.
The survey for the Truckee-Carson system was begun in 1902, with the object of utilizing the waters flowing to waste in western Nevada for the irrigation and reclamation of the adjacent arid regions in Churchill, Lyon and Storey counties.
Nevada thus became the fourth American state to adopt the referendum.
CARSON CITY, the capital of Nevada, U.S.A., and the county seat of Ormsby county, about 120 m.
It is picturesquely situated in Eagle valley, near the east base of the Sierra Nevada, at an elevation of 4720 ft.
In the United States, sulphur occurs in the following states, in many of which the mineral has been worked: Louisiana (q.v.),Utah,Colorado, California, Nevada, Alaska, Idaho, Texas and Wyoming.
In the Pleistocene period many large lakes were formed within the Great Basin; especially, by the fusion of small catchment basins, two great confluent bodies of water - Lake Lahontan (in the Nevada basin) and Lake Bonneville (in the Utah basin).
See Nevada (disambiguation) for articles sharing the title Nevada.
The Sierra Nevada range, which forms the western rim of the Basin, sends into the state a single lofty spur, the Washoe Mountains.
This range is the water-parting for nearly all the westward-flowing streams of the state, and is by far the steepest and most rugged within Nevada, a number of its peaks attaining a height of 11,000 or 12,000 ft.
On the western boundary, and partly included within the limits of Nevada, is Lake Tahoe, 20 m.
The topography and the climate of Nevada have led to the formation of two kinds of lakes, the ephemeral and the perennial.
During the glacial period many of the Nevada lakes attained a great size, several of them uniting to form the ancient " Lake Lahontan," in northwestern Nevada.
The " black mouse " or Carson field mouse (Microtus montanus) is found throughout Nevada, as well as in Utah, north-eastern California, and eastern Oregon; it multiplies rapidly under favourable conditions, and at times causes serious injury to crops.
The flora of Nevada, although scanty, varies greatly according to its location.
In the Washoe Mountains, as in the rest of the Sierra Nevada range, there is a heavy growth of conifers, extending down to the very valleys; but in many places these mountains have been almost deforested to provide timbers for the mines.
Nevada is a great ranching state, and stock-raising has shown a rapid extension.
With the growing of grasses as the chief agricultural product, farming in Nevada is necessarily extensive rather than intensive.
Nevada, for example, ranked third in 1909 in the amount of wheat produced to the acre (28.7 bushels), 4 but in the total amount produced (1,033,000 bushels) ranked only thirty-eighth, and furnished only 0.145% of the crop of the United States.
In 1909 in the amount of barley per acre (38 bushels) Nevada ranked third, and in the average farm price per bushel ($0.75) ranked first among the barley-producing states of the country, but in the total amount produced (304,000 bushels) held only the twenty-second place; and in the same year the average yield of potatoes per acre in Nevada was 180 bushels, exceeded in two states - the average for the entire country was 106.8 bushels per acre - but the total crop in Nevada (540,000 bushels) was smaller than in any state or Territory of the Union, except New Mexico.
- To its mineral wealth Nevada owes its existence as a state; but for the richness of its veins of gold and silver ore it would be still little more than an arid waste.
That conditions are favourable to the animal industry is shown by the fact that in 1897 the valleys of northern Nevada were so overrun with wild horses, to the detriment of the grazing grounds for cattle, that the legislature authorized the killing of such animals.
According to the Year Book of the Department of Agriculture in 1909 a crop of 165,000 bushels of oats was grown in Nevada on 7000 acres; there was no crop reported of Indian corn or of rye.
Nevada, and thence past the Colorado river into Arizona, is one of the richest mineral belts in the world.
Gold was found in Gold Canyon near Dayton, Nevada, as early as July 1849.
In 1859 the discovery of the famous Comstock Lode in Western Nevada led to the building of Virginia City, a prosperous community on the side of a mountain where human beings under ordinary conditions would not have lived, and eventually brought a new state into existence.
For the three years1875-1877the production of gold and silver in Nevada was more than the combined product of all the other American states and Territories.
With the working out of the deposits in the Comstock region, the mining industry declined, and between 1877 and 1900 there was a period of great depression, in which Nevada fell from first to sixth place among the silver-producing states and Territories.
This discovery gave a new impetus to prospecting in south-western Nevada, and it was soon discovered that the district was not an isolated mining region but was in the heart of a great mineral belt.
In 1903 and 1907 Nevada ranked second among the American states in the production of sulphur, but its output is very small in comparison with that of Louisiana.
The manufacturing interests of Nevada are unimportant.
In its industrial development Nevada has always been hampered by lack of transportation facilities.
It is met at several points by lines which serve the rich mining districts to the south; at Cobre by the Nevada Northern from Ely in White Pine county in the Robinson copper mining district; at Palisade by the Eureka & Palisade, a narrow-gauge railway, connecting with the lead and silver mines of the Eureka District; at Battle Mountain by the Nevada Central, also of narrow gauge, from Austin; at Hazen by the Nevada & California (controlled by the Southern Pacific) which runs to the California line, connecting in that state with other parts of the Southern Pacific system, and at Mina, Nevada, with the Tonopah & Goldfield, which runs to Tonopah and thence to Goldfield, thus giving these mining regions access to the Southern Pacific's transcontinental service; and at Reno, close to the western boundary, by the Virginia & Truckee, connecting with Carson City, Minden, in the Carson Valley, and Virginia City, in the Comstock District, and by the Nevada-California-Oregon, projected to run through north-eastern California into Oregon, in 1910, in operation to Alturas, California.
Across the state of Nevada, is parallel with the Southern Pacific for some distance in the eastern part of the state, and crosses the mountains at Beckwith Pass 20 m.
Nevada is governed under the original constitution of 1864, with the amendments adopted in 1880, 1889, 1904 and 1906.
The first recorded person of European descent to enter the limits of Nevada was Francisco Garces (1738-1781), of the Order of St Francis, who set out from Sonora in 1775 and passed through what is now the extreme southern corner of the state on his way to California.
Half a century later a party of trappers of the Hudson's Bay Company entered Nevada and plied their trade along the Humboldt river.
Emigrants to California followed the trappers, and many crossed Nevada in the early 'forties of the 19th century.
By the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, negotiated in 1848, at the close of the war with Mexico, Nevada became United States territory.
The first settlement in what is now the state of Nevada was planted in the valley of the Carson river in 1849.
Early in 1864, when it became evident that two more Republican votes might be needed in the United States Senate for reconstruction purposes, party leaders at Washington urged the people of Nevada to adopt a constitution and enter the Union as a patriotic duty, and on the 21st of March 1864 Congress passed an act to enable the people of the Territory to form a state government.
On the 31st of October President Lincoln issued a proclamation declaring Nevada a state.
Being " battle-born," Nevada was loyal to the Union throughout the Civil War, and in spite of its scanty population furnished a company of troops in 1861, which were joined to a California regiment.
A second period of decline followed the working out of this mine and lasted until 1900, when the discovery of a new mineral belt in southern Nevada brought renewed prosperity.
The Republicans, however, secured the electoral votes of Nevada in 1872 and in 1876, and in 1878 were again in full control, only to suffer defeat in 1880.
Not until the silver currency question became a political issue did Nevada take a prominent part in national politics.
The Rabbit Hole sulphur-mines are in Nevada, and a great deposit in Utah occurs at Cove Creek, Beaver (disambiguation)|Beaver county.
Of the Colorado river; the northern edge being formed by the divide of the drainage basin of the Columbia river, the eastern by that of the Colorado, the western by the central part of the Sierra Nevada crest, and by other high mountains.
Border of the last-named state, and almost the whole of Nevada are embraced within the limits of the Great Basin.
The whole Basin is marked by three features of elevation - the Utah basin, the Nevada basin and, between them, the Nevada plateau.
Nevada ranks sixth in size among the states of the Union.
Because of this extreme aridity, agriculture in Nevada is dependent on irrigation.