It is universally found that the weights of two bases which neutralize the same weight of one acid are equivalent in their power of neutralizing other acids.
Many esters of malonic acid have been prepared, the most important being the diethyl ester (malonic ester), CH 2 (000C 2 H 5) 2, which is obtained by dissolving monochloracetic acid in water, neutralizing the solution with potassium carbonate, and then adding potassium cyanide and warming the mixture until the reaction begins.
It was designed to hold the enemy in position by the vigour of its attack, thus neutralizing his independent will power and compelling him to expend his reserves in the effort to rescue the troops engaged.
The liquid is now run into neutralizing tanks containing sodium carbonate, and, after settling, the supernatant liquid, termed "light liquor," is run through bag filters and then on to bone-char filters, which have been previously used for the "heavy liquor."
Amongst these may be mentioned the neutralizing of the toxins in cases of diphtheria, tetanus and poisonous snake-bite; " serum therapeutics "; and treatment by " vaccines."
Its serum in course of time is found to contain something (antitoxin) which has the power of neutralizing the toxin secreted by the organism when parasitical upon the body.
Even in normal circumstances their play and counterplay, attractive and repellent, must be manifold almost beyond conception; for the body may be regarded as a collective organization consisting of a huge colony of micro-organisms become capable of a common life by common and mutual arrangement and differentiation of function, and by toleration and utilization of each other's peculiar products; some organs, such as the liver, for example, being credited with a special power of neutralizing poisons, whether generated under normal conditions or under abnormal, .which gain entrance from the intestinal tract.
Coincidently therewith, the hope of neutralizing infections by fortifying individual immunity has grown brighter, for it appears that immunity is not a very radical character, but one which, as in the case of vaccination, admits of modification and accurate adjustment in the individual, in no long time and by no very tedious methods.
Oxides of iron and manganese can only be used in glass manufacture in comparatively small quantities for the purpose of colouring or neutralizing colour in glass, and their introduction would not be a matter of sufficient importance to be specially recorded.
They are obtained by neutralizing the solution of the acid, or by fusing the oxide with potassium carbonate and treating the melt with hydrofluoric acid.
In modern chemistry alkali is a general term used for compounds which have the property of neutralizing acids, and is applied more particularly to the highly soluble hydrates of sodium and potassium and of the three rarer "alkali metals," caesium, rubidium and lithium, also to aqueous ammonia.
The western boundary of the province was not definitely extended beyond the Hudson, Dongan laid the basis of New York's claim to the western lands of the Iroquois by a new covenant with them in which they recognized the English as their protectors, and throughout his administration he was busy neutralizing French influence among the Iroquois and in diverting the fur trade of the north-west from the St Lawrence to Albany.
A conference met in London, and the difficulty was settled by neutralizing the duchy and ordering the evacuation of the Prussian troops who kept garrison there.
39), although it is not known whether the term is identical with the more modern sal-ammoniac. In the form of sal-ammoniac, ammonia was known, however, to the alchemists as early as the 13th century, being mentioned by Albertus Magnus, whilst in the 15th century Basil Valentine showed that ammonia could be obtained by the action of alkalies on sal-ammoniac. At a later period when sal-ammoniac was obtained by distilling the hoofs and horns of oxen, and neutralizing the resulting carbonate with hydrochloric acid, the name spirits of hartshorn was applied to ammonia.
(See SAL-Ammoniac.) Ammonium fluoride, NH 4 F, may be obtained by neutralizing ammonia with hydrofluoric acid.
Ammonium chlorate, NH 4 C10 3, is obtained by neutralizing chloric acid with either ammonia or ammonium carbonate, or by precipitating barium, strontium or calcium chlorates with ammonium carbonate.
Ammonium nitrate, NH 4 NO 3, is prepared by neutralizing nitric acid with ammonia, or ammonium carbonate, or by double decomposition between potassium nitrate and ammonium sulphate.
- Potassium fluoride, KF, is a very deliquescent salt, crystallizing in cubes and having a sharp saline taste, which is formed by neutralizing potassium carbonate or hydroxide with hydrofluoric acid and concentrating in platinum vessels.
The commercial salt usually has an alkaline reaction; it may be purified by dissolving in the minimum amount of water, and neutralizing with dilute sulphuric acid; alcohol is now added to precipitate the potassium sulphate, the solution filtered and crystallized.
Another often successful method of preventing the onset of symptoms of poisoning is to administer small doses of ammonium carbonate with the drug, thereby neutralizing the iodic acid which is liberated in the stomach.
It can be estimated quantitatively by mixing a dilute solution with potassium iodide and hydrochloric acid in excess, adding excess of zinc sulphate, neutralizing the excess of free acid with sodium bicarbonate, and determining the amount of free iodine by a standard solution of sodium thiosulphate.
Next let the balls A' and B' be connected together for a moment by a wire N called a neutralizing conductor which is subsequently removed.
The wire which connects two armature plates for a moment is the neutralizing conductor.
In the course of their rotation two diametrically opposite carriers touched against the ends of a neutralizing conductor so as to form for a moment one conductor, and the moment afterwards these two carriers were insulated, one carrying away a positive charge and the other a negative.
In this apparatus one of the charging rods communicated with one of the field plates, but the other with the neutralizing brush opposite to the other field plate.
Against which neutralizing brushes touched.
The studs on the armature plate were charged inductively by being connected for a moment by a neutralizing wire as they passed in front of the field plates, and then gave up their charges partly to renew the field charges and partly to collecting combs connected to discharge balls.
Each upright bearing carrying the shafts of the revolving disks also carries a neutralizing conductor or wire ending in a little brush of gilt thread.
The neutralizing conductors for each disk are placed at right angles to each other.
The operation of the machine is as follows: Let us suppose that one of the studs on the back plate is positively electrified and one at the opposite end of a diameter is negatively electrified, and that at that moment two corresponding studs on the front plate passing opposite to these back studs are momentarily connected together by the neutralizing wire belonging to the front plate.
The moment, however, a pair of studs on the front plate are charged, they act as field plates to studs on the back plate which are passing at the moment, provided these last are connected by the back neutralizing wire.
After a few revolutions of the disks half the studs on the front plate at any moment are charged negatively and half positively and the same on the back plate, the neutralizing wires forming the boundary between the positively and negatively charged studs.
- Silicon cannot here be used as the chief source of heat as it is in the acid Bessemer process, because most of the heat which its oxidation generates is consumed in heating the great quantities of lime needed for neutralizing the resultant silica.
6-20), the neutralizing by meal of the poison in the pottage of the famine-stricken sons of the prophets at Jericho (iv.
This liquor is first treated with carbonate of lime (ground chalk or limestone) in a " neutralizing-well," made of acid-proof material and provided with wooden stirring-gear.
This salt is obtained by roasting wolfram with sodium carbonate, lixiviating, neutralizing the boiling filtrate with hydrochloric acid and crystallizing at ordinary temperatures.
It has been put forward by Russia in justification of her repudiation of the clauses of the Treaty of Paris neutralizing the Black Sea, and of her engagements as to Batoum contained in the Treaty of Berlin.
C. Chaptal, consists in neutralizing excessive acid by means of powdered marble, and bringing up the sugar to normal proportions by adding appropriate amounts of this substance in a solid form.
They may be prepared by dissolving or suspending a metallic oxide or hydroxide in water and saturating the solution with chlorine; by double decomposition; or by neutralizing a solution of chloric acid by a metallic oxide, hydroxide or carbonate.
Nobili (1784-1835) in 1825 conceived the ingenious idea of neutralizing the directive effect of the earth's magnetism by employing a pair of magnetized steel needles fixed to one axis, but with their magnetic poles pointing in opposite directions.
This would appear to be the essential significance of sacrifice, where a number of sacred operations and instruments are made to discharge their efficacy into the victim as into a vat, so that a blessing-yielding, evil-neutralizing force of highest attainable potency is obtained (see H.
It is important that these two essential factors should be kept clearly in view, since the means of defence against any disease may depend upon the power either of neutralizing toxins or of killing the organisms producing them.
The term " antitoxic " signifies that serum has the power of neutralizing the action of the toxin, as is shown by mixing them together outside the body and then injecting them into an animal.