Philip, surnamed the Fair, was fifteen years of age, and his accession was welcomed by the Netherlanders with whom Maximilian had never been popular.
Though in entire subservience to her nephew, but was not in such intimate touch with the national peculiarities of the Netherlanders as her predecessor.
It was a lesson intended to teach the Netherlanders the utter futility of opposition to the will of their lord.
The Netherlanders detested the Spaniards and everything Spanish, and this foreign mercenary force, together with the new bishops, was looked upon as part of a general plan for the gradual overthrow of their rights and liberties.
After the destruction of the Armada, Parma had been occupied with campaigns on the southern frontier against the French, and the Netherlanders had been content to stand on guard against attack.
The leaders on both sides - the Netherlanders Tromp (killed in action on the 10th of August 1653) and de Ruyter, the Englishmen Blake and Monk - covered themselves with equal glory.