Some species build their nests in trees - great globular masses sometimes three feet in diameter, supported on the larger branches, and connected with the ground by covered passages on the outside of the tree.
It constructs large ball-like nests of dried leaves, lodged in a fork of the branches of a large tree, and with the opening on one side.
Witches-brooms are the tufted bunches of twigs found on silver firs, birches and other trees, and often present resemblances to birds nests or clumps of mistletoe if only seen from a distance.
These driver ants shelter in temporary nests made in FIG.
A bird known locally as Hangi, not met elsewhere in Europe, nests at Filfla.
In the Spanish plains, however, the young are often produced in nests built in trees, or among tall bamboos in FIG.
They are of small size and live entirely on the ground, making nests of dried leaves, grass and sticks in holiow places and forming burrows in which they pass a great part of the day.
The nests of different kinds of ants are constructed in very different situations; many species (Lasius, for example) make underground nests; galleries and chambers being hollowed out in the soil, and opening by small holes on the surface, or protected above by a large stone.
In tropical countries ants sometimes make their nests in the hollow thorns of trees or on leaves; species with this habit are believed to make a return to the tree for the shelter that it affords by protecting it from the ravages of other insects, including their own leaf-cutting relations.
The colonies of Aphaenogaster occupy nests extending over an area of fifty to a hundred square yards several feet below the surface of the ground.
The tracks along which the ants carry the leaves to their nests are often in part subterranean.
This consideration leads us to one of the most remarkable and fascinating features of 'ant-communities - the presence in the nests of insects and other small arthropods, which are tended and cared for by the ants as their " guests," rendering to the ants in return the sweet food which they desire.
Lubbock (Lord Avebury) states that the common British yellow ants (Lasius flavus) collect flocks of root-feeding aphids in their underground nests, protect them, build earthen shelters over them, and take the greatest care of their eggs.
The warmth, shelter and abundant food in the nests, due both to the fresh supplies brought in by the ants and to the large amount of waste matter that accumulates, must prove strongly attractive to the various " guests."
Some of the inmates of ants' nests are here for the purpose of preying upon the :ants or their larvae, so that we find all kinds of relations between the owners of the nests and their companions, from mutual benefit to active hostility.
Formica sanguinea is a well-known European slavemaking ant that inhabits England; its workers raid the nests of F.
Fusca and other species, and carry off to their own nests pupae from which workers are developed that live contentedly as slaves of their captors.
Captain Taylor, however, found their nests as well on low bushes of the same tree in the Bay of Fonseca (Ibis, 1859, pp. 150-152).
The earliest churches were built with cemeteries for the dead; and thus we find the nucleus of the city of Venice, little isolated groups of dwellings each on its separate islet, scattered, as Cassiodorus 1 says, like sea-birds' nests over the face of the waters.
Along one line there was a gradual elaboration of the tube until it culminated, so far as structural complexity is concerned, in the so-called trapdoor nests or burrows of various families; along the other line the tubular retreat either retains its primitive simplicity in association with a new structure, the snare or net, or is entirely superseded by the latter.
Trap-door nests are made by spiders belonging to two widely different groups, namely the Lycosidae or wolf-spiders, to which the true tarantula belongs, and the Mygalomorphae, containing the species which construct the best-known types of this style of burrow.
What in popular usage are spoken of as the instincts of animals, for example, the hunting of prey by foxes and wolves, or the procedure of ants in their nests, are generally joint products of hereditary and acquired factors.
If, as often happens, the water-level sinks, the nests stand out higher.
Nests of this species were found in 1821 by Johana Wilhelm Zetterstedt near Juckasj,rwi in Swedish Lapland, but little was known concerning its nidification until 1855, when John Wolley, after two years' ineffectual search, succeeded in obtaining near the Finnish village Muonioniska, on the Swedish frontier, well-authenticated specimens with the eggs, both of which are like exaggerated bullfinches'.
The true love-birds (Agapornis) may also be said to build nests, for they line their nest-hole with strips of pliant bark.
But the Peckhams' careful observations and experiments show that, with the American wasps, the victims stored in the nests are quite as often dead as alive; that those which are only paralysed live for a varying number of days, some more, some less; that wasp larvae thrive just as well on dead victims, sometimes dried up, sometimes undergoing decomposition, as on living and paralysed prey; that the nerve-centres are not stung with the supposed uniformity; and that in some cases paralysis, in others death, follows when the victims are stung in parts far removed from any nerve-centre.
A considerable trade is carried on in the export of horses, buffaloes, goats, dinding (dried flesh), skins, birds' nests, wax, rice, katyang, sappanwood, &c. Sumbawa entered into treaty relations with the Dutch East India Company in 1674.
Galena occurs in veins in the Cambrian clay-slate, accompanied by copper and iron pyrites, zinc-blende, quartz, calcspar, iron-spar, &c.; also in beds or nests within sandstones and rudimentary limestones, and in a great many other geological formations.
Scorpions do not possess spinning organs nor form either snares or nests, so far as is known.
Spiders form at least two kinds of constructions - snares for the capture of prey and nests for the preservation of the young.
For an account of the courtship and dancing of spiders, of their webs and floating lines, the reader is referred to the works of M'Cook (30) and the Peckhams (31), whilst an excellent account of the nests of trap-door spiders is given by Moggridge (32).
Such are Victor Rakosi (Sipulus tdredi, " The y Essas of Sipulus "; Rejtett feszkek, " Hidden Nests "); Stephen Mora (A J tyankfiai, " Our Compatriots "); Alexius Benedek, the author of numerous distinctly sympathetic and truly Magyar tales, fables and novels, one of the most gifted and deserving literary workers of modern Hungary (Huszar Anna, " Anna Huszar "; Egy szalmaozvegy levelei, " Letters of a grass widow "; A sziv konyve, " The Book of the Heart "; Katalin, " Catherine "; Csendes ordk, " Quiet Hours "; Testamentum es hat level, " Last Will and Six Letters," translated into German by Dr W.
The eggs are laid in the nests of various bees and wasps, the chrysid larva living as a " cuckoo " parasite.
The Trigonalidae, a small family whose larvae are parasitic in wasps' nests, also probably belong here.
In two of the families - the Mutillidae and Thynnidae - the females are wingless and the larvae live as parasites in the larvae of other insects; the female Mutilla enters humble-bees' nests and lays her eggs in the bee-grubs.
The chief exports consist of rice, rattans, torches, dried fish, areca-nuts, sesamum seeds, molasses, sea-slugs, edible birds' nests and tin.
Before they are confined to their nests, it is wonderful with what devotion the females are attended by their gay followers, who seem to be each trying to be more attentive than the rest.
2 The nests of the sun-birds, domed with a penthouse porch, and pensile from the end of a bough or leaf, are very neatly built.
The produce of the Eastern Islands is also collected at its ports for re-exportation to India, China and Europe - namely, gold-dust, diamonds, camphor, benzoin and other drugs; edible bird-nests, trepang, rattans, beeswax, tortoiseshell, and dyeing woods from Borneo and Sumatra; tin from Banka; spices from the Moluccas; fine cloths from Celebes and Bali; and pepper from Sumatra.
Of other Totaninae,one of the most remarkable is that to which the inappropriate name of Green Sandpiper has been assigned, the Totanus or Helodromas ochropus of ornithologists, which differs (so far as is known) from all others of the group both in its osteology2 and mode of nidification, the hen laying her eggs in the deserted nests of other birds, - Jays, Thrushes or Pigeons, - but nearly always at some height (from 3 to 30 ft.) from the ground (Prot.
A peculiar local industry is the manufacture of so-called "petrified" birds' nests, plants, and other objects.
Deep to these is the ovarian stroma, composed of fibrous tissue, and embedded in it are numerous nests of epithelial cells, the Graafian follicles, in various stages of development.
They are about the size of a pigeon, with orange-coloured plumage, a pronounced crest, and orange-red flesh, and build their nests on rock.
These caves are frequented by a species of night-hawk, called guacharo, which nests in the recesses of the rocks.
The webs and nests, &c., formed by spiders are also of silk.
Wolley in June 1853, when he found several of its nests near Muonioniska in Lapland.
Some cuckoos are singular for their habit of using the nests of smaller birds to lay their eggs in, so that the young may be reared by foster-parents; and it has been suggested that the object of the likeness exhibited to the hawk is to enable the cock cuckoo either to frighten the small birds away from their nests or to lure them in pursuit of him, while the hen bird quietly and without molestation disposes of her egg.
But it has been ascertained that the species of Volucella which behave in this manner also visit for a like purpose the nests of wasps, which they do not resemble.
By the 15th century in many cases they had utterly sunk in reputation, their obligation to nurse the sick was quite neglected, and they had, rightly or wrongly, acquired the reputation of being mere nests of beggars and women of ill fame.
It is said also to dig up the nests of wasps in order to eat the larvae, as the ratel - a closely allied South African form - is said to rob the bees of their honey.
It is probable that what he had suffered during his first year in London had often reminded him of some parts of the satire in which Juvenal had described the misery and degradation of a needy man of letters, lodged among the pigeons' nests in the tottering garrets which overhung the streets of Rome.
To-day Labuan chiefly exists as a trading depot for the natives of the neighbouring coast of Borneo, who sell their produce - beeswax, edible birds-nests, camphor, gutta, trepang, &c., - to Chinese shopkeepers, who resell it in Singapore.
These floral products which form the food of bees and of their larvae, are in most cases collected and stored by the industrious insects; but some genera of bees act as inquilines or "cuckoo-parasites," laying their eggs in the nests of other bees, so that their larvae may feed at the expense of the rightful owners of the nest.
Fabre has found that in the nests of some species of Osmia the young bee developed in the first-formed cell, if (as often happens) she emerges from her cocoon before the inmates of the later cells, will try to work her way round these or to bite a lateral hole through the bramble shoot; should she fail to do this, she will wait for the emergence of her sisters and not make her escape at the price of injury to them.
The nests of Andrena, for example, are haunted by the black and yellow species of Nomada, whose females lay their eggs in the food provided for the larva of the Andrena.
I learned how the sun and the rain make to grow out of the ground every tree that is pleasant to the sight and good for food, how birds build their nests and live and thrive from land to land, how the squirrel, the deer, the lion and every other creature finds food and shelter.
Then they began to wander merrily about searching for nuts, climbing trees, peeping curiously into the empty birds' nests, and playing hide and seek from behind the trees.
When all outside is cold and white, when the little children of the woodland are gone to their nurseries in the warm earth, and the empty nests on the bare trees fill with snow, my window-garden glows and smiles, making summer within while it is winter without.
In the savage state every family owns a shelter as good as the best, and sufficient for its coarser and simpler wants; but I think that I speak within bounds when I say that, though the birds of the air have their nests, and the foxes their holes, and the savages their wigwams, in modern civilized society not more than one half the families own a shelter.
Perhaps they are the nests of the chivin.
The Paussidae are a very remarkable family of small beetles, mostly tropical, found only in ants' nests, or flying by night, and apparently migrating from one nest to another.
Other flies of the genus Volucella, larger and heavier in build than Eristalis, resemble humble-bees in colour and form, and it was formerly supposed that the purpose of this similarity was to enable the flies to enter with impunity the nests of the humble-bees and to lay their eggs amongst those of the latter insects.
The carpenter-bees (Xylocopa and allied genera), unrepresented in the British Islands, though widely distributed in warmer countries, make their nests in dry wood.
The birds had flown, and their empty nests in the bare trees were filled with snow.