The welding together of the great Kosala kingdom, more than twice the size of England, in the very centre of the settled country, led insensibly but irresistibly to the establishment of a standard of speech, and the standard followed was the language used at the court at Savatthi in the Nepalese hills, the capital of Kosala.
It lies on the Uska-Nepal road at mile 19.75; and about half a mile south of the boundary pillar numbered 44 on the frontier line between British and Nepalese 1 A surname given to Pippin III.
The existence, a few miles beyond the Nepalese frontier, of an inscribed pillar had been known for some years when, in 1895, the discovery of another inscribed pillar at Nigliva, near by, led to the belief that this other, hitherto neglected, one must also be an Asoka pillar, and very probably the one mentioned by Hsuan Tsang.
At the request of the Indian government the Nepalese government had the pillar, which was half buried, excavated for examination; and Dr Fiihrer, then in the employ of the Archaeological Survey, arrived soon afterwards at the spot.
It has a population of about 30,000, and its palace and buildings generally are of a more striking appearance than in other Nepalese towns.
In the same way, according to Brian Hodgson, the yellow-bellied weasel (Putorius kathia) " is exceedingly prized by the Nepalese for its service in ridding houses of rats.
The best artisans are Nepalese and Chinese, the former being the best workers in metal and dyers.
The great trade routes are, first, that which, starting from Cheng-tu, the capital of the Chinese province of Szechuen, passes by way of Tachienlu or Dartsedo, Litang, Batang, Chiamdo, Larego, Lhasa, Gyantse, Shigatse, reaches the Nepalese Routes, &C. frontier at Nielam and goes thence to Katmandu.
These latter bore (obverse) a Nepalese emblem surrounded by eight fleurons containing the eight sacred Buddhist jewels, and (reverse) an eight-petalled flower surrounded by eight fleurons containing the names of the eight jewels in Tibetan characters.
A coinage was then issued (it would appear once only) in Tibet for domestic use, modelled on an old Kathmandu pattern and struck by Nepalese artists.
The Gurkhas, however, in 1788 and following years continued to strike coins of progressively debased quality, which were rude imitations of the old Nepalese mintage, and to endeavour to force this currency on the Tibetans, eventually making the departure of the latter from old usage a pretext for war and invasion.
This was the opportunity for a series of valuable exploratory journeys through the Tibetan provinces adjoining the Indian and Nepalese frontiers, which added greatly to our stock of information about Lhasa and the districts surrounding that city.
Pre-eminent among these is the discovery, by Mr William Peppe, on the Birdpur estate, adjoining the boundary between English and Nepalese territory, of the stupa, or cairn, erected by the Sakiya clan over their share of the ashes from the cremation pyre of the Buddha.
Although the northern limits of the Tsanpo basin are not :sufficiently well known to locate the Indo-Tibetan watershed even approximately, there exists some scattered evidence of the nature of that strip of Northern Hima p laya on the Tibeto-Nepalese border which lies between the line of greatest elevation and the trough of the snowy Tsanpo.
The main features of Nepalese topography are now fairly well defined.
AVADANA, the name given to a type of Buddhist romance literature represented by a large number of Sanskrit (Nepalese) collections, of which the chief are the Avadanasataka (Century of Legends), and the Divyavadana (The Heavenly Legend).
Cardamoms are a valuable crop in the same locality, and also in the Nepalese Himalayas.