She, along with her son, was escorted into Austria by Count von Neipperg, and refused to comply with the entreaties and commands of Napoleon to proceed to Elba; and her alienation from him was completed when he ventured to threaten her with a forcible abduction if she did not obey.
She proceeded alone to Parma, where she fell more and more under the influence of the count von Neipperg, and had to acquiesce in the title "duke of Reichstadt" accorded to her son.
Long before the tidings of the death of Napoleon at St Helena reached her she was living in intimate relations with Neipperg at Parma, and bore a son to him not long after that event.
Thereafter Neipperg became her morganatic husband; and they had other children.
Her rule in Parma, conjointly with Neipperg, was characterized by a clemency and moderation which were lacking in the other Italian states in that time of reaction.
On the death of Neipperg in 1829 his place was taken by Baron Werklein, whose influence was hostile to popular liberty.