The descendants of Niall spread over Ireland and became divided into two main branches, the northern and the southern Hy Neill, to one or other of which nearly all the high-kings (ard-ri) of Ireland from the 5th to the 12th century belonged; the descendants of Eoghan being the chief of the northern Hy Neill.'
O'Neill, grandson of Neill, or Niall, the name O'Neill becoming about this time an hereditary family surname 2), whose grandson, Flaherty, became renowned for piety by going on a pilgrimage to Rome in 1030.
Neill Mor's great-greatgrandson, Henry O'Neill, was created baronet of Killeleagh in 1666.
His son, Sir Neill O'Neill fought for James II.
Through an elder line from Neill Mor was descended Brian Mac Phelim O'Neill, who was treacherously seized in 1573 by the earl of Essex, whom he was hospitably entertaining, and executed together with his wife and brother, some two hundred of his clan being at the same time massacred by the orders of Essex.
For the history of the ancient Irish kings of the Hy Neill see: The Book of Leinster, edited with introduction by R.
The subsequent history of Benares contains two important events, the rebellion of Chait Singh in 1781, occasioned by the demands of Warren Hastings for money and troops to carry on the Mahratta War, and the Mutiny of 1857, when the energy and coolness of the European officials, chiefly of General Neill, carried the district successfully through the storm.
There are statues of Burns, the 13th earl of Eglinton, General Smith Neill and Sir William Wallace.
The fort was held by a little garrison of Europeans and loyal Sikhs, until it was relieved by General Neill on June 11th of that year.
Robert Barclay Thomas Rudyard Gawen Lawrie Lord Neill Campbell Andrew Hamilton Edmund Andros.
On the 5th of June the troops at Benares mutinied, but were disarmed by Neill; and on the 6th of June the 6th native infantry at Allahabad mutinied and shot down their officers, but the fort was held until the arrival of First Neill, who promptly restored order.
Leaving Neill in command at Cawnpore, Havelock started out again on the 29th of July with ten light guns and 1500 men in the desperate attempt to relieve Lucknow, which was 53 m.
This decision was badly received by his troops, who were burning to avenge their countrywomen, and by General Neill, whom Havelock was obliged to reprimand for insubordination.
Being slightly reinforced, he advanced on the 5th of August, and again turned the enemy out of Busherutgunge, but was again obliged by cholera to retreat to Mangalwar; and on receipt of news from Neill that the enemy were assembling at Bithur, he returned to Cawnpore, and abandoned for the time the attempt to relieve Lucknow.
Neill was killed in the streets, and the little force lost in all 535 officers and men; but on the 26th of September it entered the residency, and the first relief of Lucknow was accomplished.
Nevertheless after the middle of the 8th century the title of ardri (high-king) was only held by the Cinel Eogain (northern Hy Neill) and the rulers of Meath (southern Hy Neill), as the kingdom of Oriel had dropped into insignificance.
Their descendants were known as the northern Hy Neill.'
Diarmait, son of Fergus Cerbaill (544-565), of the southern Hy Neill, undoubtedly professed Christianity though he still clung to many pagan practices, such as polygamy and the use of druidical incantations in battle.
St Columba's kinsmen, the northern Hy Neill, took up the quarrel, and attacked and defeated the king at Culdreimne in 561.
Others have surmised that it was abandoned as a regular place of residence long before this, soon after the northern and southern branches of the Hy Neill had consolidated their power at Ailech and in Westmeath.
Aed, son of Ainmire (572-598) of the northern Hy Neill, figures prominently in the story of St Columba.
A curious feature of Hy Neill rule about this time was joint kingship. From 563 to 656 there were no less than five such pairs.
The oscillation of the centre of power between Meath and Tir Eogain, according as the ardri belonged to the southern or northern Hy Neill, produced corresponding perturbations in the balance of parties among the minor kings.
The tanists or heirs of the northern and southern Hy Neill having died, the throne fell to Maelsechlainn II., of the Cland Colrnain, the last of the Hy Neill who was undisputed king of Ireland.
This victory, won over the combined forces of the Scandinavians of Dublin, Man and the Isles, compelled Amlaib to deliver up all his captives and hostages, - among whom were Domnall Claen, king of Leinster, and several notables - to forgo the tribute which he had imposed upon the southern Hy Neill and to pay a large contribution of cattle and money.
In 998 Brian ascended the Shannon with a large force, intending to attack Connaught, and Maelsechlainn, who received no support from the northern Hy Neill, came to terms with him.
He applied to the northern Hy Neill to come to his assistance, and even offered to abdicate in favour of the chief of the Cinel Eogain, but the latter refused unless Maelsechlainn undertook to cede to them half the territory of his own tribe, the Cland Colmain.
The northern Hy Neill and the Ulaid took no part in the struggle.
However, the effects of Brian's revolution were permanent; the prescriptive rights of the Hy Neill were disputed, and from the battle of Clontarf until the coming of the Normans the history of Ireland consisted of a struggle for ascendancy between the O'Brians of Munster, the O'Neills of Ulster and the O'Connors of Connaught.
Diarmait MacMurchada (Dermod MacMurrough), greatgrandson of Diarmait Mael-na-mBo, as king of Leinster was by descent and position much mixed up with foreigners, and generally in a state of latent if not open hostility to the high-kings of the Hy Neill and Dalcais dynasties.