Mdlle Curchod soon afterwards became the wife of Necker, the famous financier; and Gibbon and the Neckers frequently afterwards met on terms of mutual friendship and esteem.
And Mme Necker; Mr Fox also gave him two welcome " days of free and private society " in 1788.
Mirabeau tried for a time, too, to act with Necker, and obtained the sanction of the Assembly to Necker's financial scheme, not because it was good, but because, as he said, "no other plan was before them, and something must be done."
The opposition was now continued by Linguet and Necker, who in 1 775 published his treatise Sur la legislation et le commerce des grains.
Some speak of a plot, of forged letters containing attacks on the queen shown to the king as Turgot's, of a series of notes on Turgot's budget prepared, it is said, by Necker, and shown to the king to prove his incapa city.
The sudden dismissal of Necker by Louis XVI.
1827), in defence of Gallicanism; and Etudes biographiques et litteraires sur Antoine Arnauld, P. Nicole et Jacques Necker (1823).
STALL ANNE LOUISE GERMAINE Necker, Baronne De Stael-Holstein (1766-1817), French novelist.
Her father was the famous financier Necker, her mother Suzanne Curchod, almost equally famous as the early love of Gibbon, as the wife of Necker himself, and as the mistress of one of the most popular salons of Paris.
Mime Necker, despite her talents, her beauty and her fondness for philosophe society, was strictly decorous, somewhat reserved, and disposed to carry out in her daughter's case the rigorous discipline of her own childhood.
They returned to Paris, or at least to its neighbourhood, in 1785, and Mlle Necker resumed literary work of a miscellaneous kind, including a.
1827) edited the complete works of his mother in seventeen volumes (Paris, 1820-1821), with a notice by Mme Necker de Saussure, and the edition was afterwards republished in a compacter form, and, supplemented by some Ouvres inedites, is still obtainable in three volumes, large 8vo (Didot).
Turgot's successor, Necker, however, continued the regime of reform until 1781, and it was only with Necker's dismissal that the period of reaction began.
The birds, as Mr Necker very truly describes, appear like flying brilliant sparks."
Montmorin was a devoted admirer of Necker, whose influence at the court he was mainly instrumental in maintaining.
He retired when Necker was dismissed on the 12th of July 1789, but on Necker's recall after the taking of the Bastille again resumed his office, which he continued to hold till October 1791.
Mirabeau had approached him so early as December 1788, with a plan for the policy to be pursued by the court towards the new states general; but Montmorin, offended by Mirabeau's attacks on Necker and by his Histoire secrete de la tour de Berlin, refused to see him.
The public held her responsible for the bankrupt state of the country; and though in 1788, following the popular outcry, she prevailed upon the king to recall Necker, it was impossible for him to avert the Revolution.
In spite of the poor condition in Europe of the credit of the struggling colonies, and of the fact that France was almost bankrupt (and in the later years was at war), and although Necker strenuously resisted the making of any loans to the colonies, France, largely because of Franklin's appeals, expended, by loan or gift to the colonies, or in sustenance of the French arms in America, a sum estimated at $60,000,000.
There he wrote his Denonciation contre Necker, and in May dared to return to Paris and continue the Ami du peuple.
Among the scientific celebrities were de Saussure, the most many-sided of all; de Candolle and Boissier, the botanists; Alphonse Favre and Necker, the geologists; Marignac, the chemist; Deluc, the physicist, and Plantamour, the astronomer.
Pradier and Chaponniere, the sculptors; Arlaud, Diday and Calame, the artists; Mallet, who revealed Scandinavia to the literary world; Necker, the minister; Sismondi, the historian of the Italian republics; General Dufour, author of the great survey which bears the name of the "Dufour Map," have each a niche in the Temple of Fame.
There he met other Swiss, among them Marat and Etienne Dumont, but their schemes for a new Geneva in Ireland - which the government favoured - were given up when Necker came to power in France, and Claviere, with most of his comrades, went to Paris.
Like the French aristocrats with the reforms of Necker, they would not listen till ruin had overtaken them.
Turgot and Necker had attempted these reforms, and Calonne attributed their failure to the malevolent criticism of the parlements.
In reality his audacious plan of reforms, which Necker took up later, might have saved the monarchy had it been firmly seconded by the king.
Calonne soon afterwards passed over to England, and during his residence there kept up a polemical correspondence with Necker on the finances.
He had hoped to be made minister of finance, and was disappointed by the nomination of Necker, of whom he became a bitter opponent.
In the next year followed the Considerations sur les richesses et le luxe, combating the opinions of Necker; and in 1788 the more valuable Considerations sur l'esprit et les mceurs, a book which abounds in sententious, but often excessively frank, sayings.
Necker, as director-general of the finances, set forth the condition of the treasury and proposed some small reforms. The Tiers Etat (Third Estate) was dissatisfied that the question of joint or separate deliberation should have been left open.
He recalled Necker, who had resigned after the Seance Royale.
On the same day he dismissed Necker and ordered him to quit Versailles.
On the r 2th of July Camille Desmoulins announced the dismissal of Necker to the crowd in the Palais Royal.
Thinking that it would be politic to claim no more, Necker persuaded the king to intimate that he was satisfied with Lafayette's proposal.
Even Necker found the Assembly heedless of his counsels.
With some trouble Necker induced the Assembly to sanction first a loan of 30,000,000 livres and then a loan of 80,000,000 livres.
The public having shown no eagerness to subscribe, Necker proposed that every man should be invited to make a patriotic contribution of onefourth of his income.
Finding that he had lost all credit with the Assembly, Necker resigned office and left France in September 1790.
He intrigued against Necker, whom he regarded as a dangerous innovator, a republican, a foreigner and a Protestant.
The first of these was Necker, a Genevese financier.
More able than Turgot, though a man of smaller ideas, he abrogated the edicts registered by the lits de justice; and unable Necker, or not daring to attack the evil at its root, he thought 1781.
Necker was carried away in his turn by the reaction he had helped to bring about (1781).
System, he tried to suppress privilege and fall back upon the social reforms of Turgot, and the financial schemes of Necker, by suggesting once more to the assembly of notables a territorial subsidy from all landed property.
Necker, with little backing at court, could not act energetically, and Louis XVI., wavering between general.
Necker and the queen, chose the attitude most convenient to his indolence and least to his interest:
The king, more ponderous and irresolute every day, vacillated MeetIng ol between Necker the liberal on one side and Marie Antoinette, whose feminine pride was opposed to any concessions, with the comte dArtois, a mischievous nobody who could neither choose a side nor stick to one, on the other.
The kiag was obliged to recall Necker, to mount the tricolor cockade at the Hotel de Yule, and to recognize Bailly as mayor of Paris and La Fayette as commander of the National Guard, which remained in.
JACQUES NECKER (1732-1804), French statesman, finance minister of Louis XVI., was born at Geneva in Switzerland.
Jacques Necker had been sent to Paris in 1747 to become a clerk in the bank of a friend of his father, M.
Thellusson superintended the bank in London (his grandson was made a peer as Lord Rendlesham), while Necker was managing partner in Paris.
In 1763 Necker fell in love with Madame de Vermenou, the widow of a French officer.
There Necker, transferring his love from the widow to the poor Swiss girl, married Suzanne before the end of the year.
Madame Necker entertained the chief leaders of the political, financial and literary worlds of Paris, and her Fridays became as greatly frequented as the Mondays of Madame Geoffrin, or the Tuesdays of Madame Helvetius.
In 1773 Necker won the prize of the Academie Frangaise for an eloge on Colbert, and in 1775 published his Essai sur la legislation et le commerce des grains, in which he attacked the free-trade policy of Turgot.
In October 1776 Necker was made finance minister of France, though with the title only of director of the treasury, which, however, he changed in 1777 for that of director-general of the finances.
The operation of funding was too difficult to be suddenly accomplished, and Necker rather pointed out the right line to be followed than completed the operation.
But neither Necker nor his wife cared to remain out of office, and in 1787 Necker was banished by "lettre de cachet" 40 leagues from Paris for attacking Calonne.
In 1788 the country, which had at the bidding of the literary guests of Madame Necker come to believe that Necker was the only minister who could "stop the deficit," as they said, demanded Necker's recall, and in September 1788 he became once more director-general of the finances.
Throughout the momentous months which followed the biography of Necker is part of the history of the French Revolution.
Necker put a stop to the rebellion in Dauphine by legalizing its assembly, and then set to work to arrange for the summons of the states general.
Here he occupied himself with literature, but Madame Necker pined for her Paris salon and died in 1794.
He continued to live on at Coppet, under the care of his daughter, Madame de Stael, and his niece, Madame Necker de Saussure, but his time was past, and his books had no political influence.