When in 1821 the Austrian army was moved south to coerce the Neapolitans, Santarosa entered into a conspiracy to obtain the intervention of the Piedmontese in favour of the Neapolitans by an attack on the Austrian lines of communication.
Expelling Lafarina and driving out Depretis, who represented Cavour, Garibaldi routed the Neapolitans at Milazzo on the 10th of July.
After the fall of Rome it suffered attacks and devastations from the successive masters of Italy, until it was finally taken by the Neapolitans in 1299.
To secure fairly uniform efficiency in the various corps, and also as a means of unifying Italy, Piedmontese, Umbrians and Neapolitans are mixed in the same corps and sleep in the same barrack room.
Tuscany and Naples had both joined the Italian league; a Tuscan army started for Lombardy on the 3oth of April, and 17,000 Neapolitans commanded by Pepe (who had returned after 28 years of exile) went to assist Durando in intercepting the Austrian reinforce1irnts under Nugent.
The Neapolitans reached Bologna on the 17th of May, but in the meantime a dispute had broken out at Naples between the king and parliament as to the nature of the royal oath; a cry of treason was raised by a group of factious youngsters, barricades were erected and street fighting ensued (May Is).
But the withdrawal of the Neapolitans left Durando too weak to intercept Nugent and his 30,000 men; and the latter, although harassed by the inhabitants of Venetia and repulsed at Vicenza, succeeded in joining Radetzky, who was soon further reinforced from Tirol.
The Neapolitans were ignominiously beaten in May and retired to the frontier; on the 1st of June Oudinot declared that he would attack Rome on the 4th, but by beginning operations on the 3rd, when no attack was expected, he captured an important position in the Pamphili gardens.
The Italian cause had been crushed, but revolution and war had strengthened the feeling of unity, for Neapolitans had fought for Venice, Lombards for Rome, Piedmontese for all Italy.
It was the scene of the defeat of the Neapolitans by the French on the 27th of November 1798.
The queen now sent Sforza to re-establish her authority in Rome, whence the Neapolitans had been expelled after the death of Ladislaus; Sforza entered the city and obliged the condottiere Braccio da Montone, who was defending it in the pope's name, to depart (1416).
But dissensions broke out between the Aragonese and Catalans and the Neapolitans, and Alphonso had Caracciolo arrested; whereupon Joanna, fearing for her own safety, invoked the aid of Sforza, who with difficulty carried her off to Aversa.
It lies in the south-east angle of the Bay of Naples, at the beginning of the peninsula of Sorrento, and owing to the sea and mineral water baths (12 different springs) and its attractive situation, with a splendid view of Vesuvius and fine woods on the hills behind, it is a favourite resort of foreigners in spring and autumn and of Neapolitans in summer.
On these occasions the substance contained in the phial liquefies, and the Neapolitans see in this phenomenon a supernatural manifestation.
For political reasons he was obliged to take refuge in Florence; on his return in 1799 he was imprisoned by the Neapolitans, at that time in occupation of Rome, as a Jacobin, but shortly afterwards liberated and appointed Commissario delle Antichita and librarian to Prince Chigi.
In Sicily the revolutionists were purely insular in their aspirations and bitterly hostile to the Neapolitans, and the attempts.
The Sicilians, unlike the Neapolitans, were thoroughly alienated from the Bourbons, whom they detested, and after the Garibaldi andfhe peace of Villafranca (July 18J9) Mazzini's emissaries, Thousand.
After several engagements the Neapolitans were forced to retire, and eventually agreed to the treaty of Casalanza by which Murat was to abandon the kingdom; but the Neapolitan officers retained their rank under Ferdinand IV.
It was occupied by the Neapolitans in 1814; from 1816 to 1847 it was governed as a duchy by Maria Luisa, queen of Etruria, and her son Charles Louis; and it afterwards formed one of the divisions of Tuscany.
In the beginning of the 8th century, at the time of the iconoclastic controversy, the emperor Leo the Isaurian having forced compliance to his edict against the worshipping of images, the Neapolitans, encouraged by Pope Gregory III., threw off their allegiance to the Eastern emperors, and established a republican form of government under a duke of their own appointment.