There are few trees on the island, for most of the valuable indigenous trees have been practically exterminated, such as the sandalwood, which the earlier navigators found one of the most valuable products of the island.
Abroad its navigators monopolized the commerce of the world, and explored unknown seas; at home the Dutch school of painting reached its acme in Rembrandt (1607-1669); and the philological reputation of the country was sustained by Grotius, Vossius and the elder Heinsius.
The European country which had come the most completely under the influence of Arab culture now began to send forth explorers Spanish to distant lands, though the impulse came not from the Moors but from Italian merchant navigators in Spanish explora- service.
In the same year Alonso de Ojeda, accompanied by Juan de la Cosa, from whose maps we learn much of the discoveries of the 16th century navigators, and by a Florentine named Amerigo Vespucci, touched the coast of South America somewhere near Surinam, following the shore as far as the Gulf of Maracaibo.
The Gabun was discovered by Portuguese navigators towards the close of the I 5th century, and was named from its fanciful resemblance to a gabao or cabin.
Louis de Bougainville obtained a fuller acquaintance with the archipelago in 1768, and called them the Navigators' Islands (Iles des Navigateurs) .
The south-westerly winds which prevail north of the equator during the hot half of the year, to which navigators have given the name of the south-west monsoon (the latter word being a corruption of the Indian name for season), arise from the great diminution of atmospheric pressure over Asia, which begins to be strongly marked with the great rise of temperature in April and May, and the simultaneous relatively higher pressure over the equator and the regions south of it.
In a more noble fashion the Crusade survived in the minds of the navigators; "Vasco da Gama, Christopher Columbus, Albuquerque, and many others dreamed, and not insincerely, that they were labouring for the deliverance of the Holy Land, and they bore the Cross on their breasts."
In the beginning of the 16th century it began to be known to the Portuguese and Spanish navigators, and the latter at least made some attempts at establishing settlements or missions.
Coast of the Persian Gulf, but as the early navigators pushed their voyages further, the ships rounded the coast of Arabia, and came into the Red Sea, and the names of Magan and the neighbouring Melukhkha gradually extended westward, with the result that in late times to the Assyrians Melukhkha meant Ethiopia.
Far superior are those scenographic representations which enable a person consulting the map to identify prominent landmarks, such as the Pic du Midi, which rises like a pillar to the south of Pau, but is not readily discovered upon an ordinary map. This advantage is still fully recognized, for such views of distant hills are still commonly given on the margin of marine charts for the assistance of navigators; military surveyors are encouraged to introduce sketehes of prominent landmarks upon their reconnaissance plans, and the general public is enabled to consult " Picturesque Relief Maps " - such as F.
The charts in use of the medieval navigators of the Indian Ocean - Arabs, Persians or Dravidas - were equal in value if not superior to the charts of the Mediterranean.
It was Delisle who assumed the meridian of Ferro, which had been imposed upon French navigators by royal order (1634), to lie exactly 20° to the west of Paris.
The left branch is appreciably noticed near Odessa and the north-west corner; the right branch sweeps past the Crimea, strikes the Caucasian shore (where it comes to the surface running across, but not into, the south-east corner of the Black Sea), and finally disperses flowing westwards along the northern coast of Asia Minor between Cape Jason and 1 The early Greek navigators gave it the epithet of axenus, i.e.
Aldabra was visited by Portuguese navigators in 1511.
In 1576 Manuel de Mesquita Perestrello, commanded by King Sebastian to explore the coast of South Africa and report on suitable harbours, -made a rough chart, even then of little use to navigators, which is of value as exhibiting the most that was known of the country by its discoverers before the advent of their Dutch rivals, who established themselves at Cape Town in 1652.
- The name seems to have been applied by the earlier Greek navigators to the peoples who inhabited the eastern coast of Spain; probably it originally meant those who dwelt by the river Iberus (mod.
Amplus, large), in astronomy, the angular distance of the rising or setting sun, or other heavenly body, from the east or west point of the horizon; used mostly by navigators in finding the variation of the compass by the setting sun.
Greater depths These preliminary trips of scientific marine investigation were than those usually sounded by a hand-line may possibly not have followed by the greatest purely scientific expedition ever underbeen beyond the reach of the earlier navigators, for Strabo taken, the voyage of H.M.S.
In the same and the two following centuries, though the coasts were visited by many illustrious navigators, as Willem Schouten and Jacob Lemaire, Abel Tasman, William Dampier, L.
The Blue Hills in Milton are the nearest elevations to the coast, and are conspicuous to navigators approaching Boston.
It is possible that the coasts of Massachusetts were visited by the Northmen, and by the earliest navigators who followed Cabot, but this is only conjecture.
Henry May, an Englishman, suffered the same fate in 1593; and lastly, Sir George Somers shared the destiny of the two preceding navigators in 1609.
After him came other navigators, French, Spanish, Russian and American; and, as the 8th century neared its end, came sealers, whalers and trading-schooners in quest of flax and timber.
But the recent discoveries of Tasman, Schouten and other Dutch navigators, and his friendship for Blaeu and xxvri.
It was possibly visited by Genoese navigators in 1291, and was certainly discovered by the Portuguese c. 1446, but was first explored for any distance from its mouth (1455) by the Venetian Alvise Cadamosto (q.v.), who published an account of his travels at Vicenza in 1507 (La Prima Navigazione per l'Oceano alle terre de' Negri della Bassa Ethiopia) .
Thereafter it was several times observed by navigators who successively claimed its discovery and renamed it.
In Micronesia, since the discoveries of the early Spanish navigators, the Carolines, Mariana and Pelew Islands had been recognized as Spanish territory until 1885, when Germany began to establish herself in the first-named group. Spain had never occupied this group, but protested against the German action, and Pope Leo XIII.
- For the results of the various voyages of explorers see their narratives, especially those of Captain Cook, and among the earlier Collections of voyages see especially Captain James Burney, Chronological History of the Discoveries in the South Sea or Pacific Ocean - from the earliest navigators to 1764 - (London, 1803-1817).
The " native " cattle, descended from those left on the islands by early navigators, are being improved by breeding with imported Hereford, Shorthorn, Angus and Holstein bulls, the Herefords being the best for the purpose.
The effects of the iron and steel used in the construction of ships upon the compass occupied the attention of the ablest physicists of the i 9th century, with results which enable navigators to conduct their ships with perfect safety.
The Chinese had soon occasion to perceive how much more essential the perfection of the compass was to the superior navigators of Europe than to themselves, as the commanders of the ` Lion ' and ` Hindostan,' trusting to that instrument, stood out directly from the land into the sea."
These instruments they have from us, and made by our artists, and they do not in the least vary from ours, except that the characters are Arabic. The Arabs are the most skilful navigators of all the Asiatics or Africans; but neither they nor the Indians make use of charts, and they do not much want them; some they have, but they are copied from ours, for they are altogether ignorant of perspective."
We have already seen that the Chinese as late as the end of the 8th century made voyages with compasses on which but little reliance could be placed; and it may perhaps be assumed that the compasses early used in the East were mostly too imperfect to be of much assistance to navigators, and were therefore often dispensed with on customary routes.
Fearless and patient navigators, they ventured into regions where no one else dared to go, and, always with an eye to their monopoly, they carefully guarded the secrets of their trade routes and discoveries, and their knowledge of winds and currents.
The coast is generally so low as to be visible to navigators only within a very short distance, the mangrove trees being their only sailing marks.
Few questions in historical geography have been more keenly discussed than that of the first discovery of Guinea by the navigators of modern Europe.
At length the consecutive efforts of the navigators employed by Prince Henry of Portugal - Gil Eannes, Diniz Diaz, Nuno Tristam, Alvaro Fernandez, Cadamosto, Usodimare and Diego Gomez - made known the coast as far as the Gambia, and by the end of the 15th century the whole region was familiar to Europeans.
In his instructions to the navigators in Sir Hugh Willoughby's fleet, Sebastian Cabot in those for the direction of the intended voyage to Cathay, and Richard Hakluyt, who promoted many voyages of discovery in addition to writing their history, agree with Sir Humphrey Gilbert's chronicler that " the sowing of Christianity must be the chief intent of such as shall make any attempt at foreign discovery, or else whatever is builded upon other foundation shall never obtain happy success or continuance."
In the year 1618 was published The True Honour of Navigation and Navigators, by John Wood, D.D., dedicated to Sir Thomas Smith, governor to the East India Company, and about the same time appeared the well-known treatise of Hugo Grotius, De veritate religionis christianae, written for the express use of settlers in distant lands.
In the 12th century the Canaries were visited by Arab navigators, and in 1334 they were rediscovered by a French vessel driven among them by a gale.
The Brothers (often called by the older navigators The Sisters) lie between Abd-el-Kuri and Sokotra.
The Marshall Islanders are the boldest and most skilful navigators in the Pacific. Their voyages of many months' duration, in great canoes sailing with outrigger to windward, well-provisioned, and depending on the skies for fresh water, help to show how the Pacific was colonized.
These place him in the sacred circle near to Heine and Leopardi, and, though strongly individualistic, it is curious to note in them the influence of Germanism on the mind of a southerner and a descendant of the Catholic navigators of the 16th century.
There seems little doubt that the cult of Melicertes was of foreign, probably Phoenician, origin, and introduced by Phoenician navigators on the coasts and islands of the Aegean and Mediterranean.
Although it is certain that the four great geographical landmarks which to-day serve to keep Hudson's memory alive, namely the Hudson Bay, Strait, Territory and River, had repeatedly been visited and even drawn on maps and charts before he set out on his voyages, yet he deserves to take a very high rank among northern navigators for the mere extent of his discoveries and the success with which he pushed them beyond the limits of his predecessors.
Along the sea-board are twenty-two well-defined headlands or capes and about a score of bays or inlets, to mark which for navigators there are thirty-four lighthouses.
They are expert navigators, and construct curious charts of thin strips of wood tied together with fibres, some giving the position of the islands and some the direction of the prevailing winds.
In 1821 Russia attempted by ukase to exclude navigators from Bering Sea and the Pacific coast of her possessions, which led to immediate protest from the United States and Great Britain.
On behalf of Portugal, claims were advanced to the Congo, based on the discovery of its mouth by Portuguese navigators centuries before.
In 1578 Sir Francis Drake first sighted the point which in 1616 was named Cape Hoorn (anglicized Horn) by the Dutch navigators Jacob Lemaire and Willem Cornelis Schouten (1615-1617).
It has accommodation for a large fleet with deep water close inshore, but the arid nature of the country caused it to be neglected by the early navigators, and with the growth of Cape Town Saldanha Bay was rarely visited.
The measure of the earth, which had hitherto been accepted by geographers and navigators, was based on the very rough estimate that the length of a degree of latitude of the earth's surface measured along a meridian was .60 m.
He proceeded across the Pacific Ocean by way of the Samoan group, which he named the Navigators Islands, the New Hebrides and the Solomon Islands.
Formed from the rude observations of navigators across the line.
The bay is open to the south, and is dangerous to navigators, as in foggy weather it has been frequently mistaken for the entrance to Waterford Harbour.
After the discovery of southern China by European navigators Cathay was erroneously believed to be a country to the north of China, and it was the desire to reach it that sent the English adventurers of the 16th century in search of the north-east passage.
In the breeding season they resort to the most desolate lands in higher southern latitudes, and indeed have been met with as far to the southward as navigators have penetrated.
It is true, we are such poor navigators that our thoughts, for the most part, stand off and on upon a harborless coast, are conversant only with the bights of the bays of poesy, or steer for the public ports of entry, and go into the dry docks of science, where they merely refit for this world, and no natural currents concur to individualize them.