C, calcanium; a, astralagus; cb, cuhoid; n, navicular; c3, ectocuneiform; II.
The astragalus has a pulley-like surface above for articulation into the tibia, but its lower surface is flattened and unites to a much greater extent with the navicular than with the cuboid, which bone is of comparatively less importance than in the Artiodactyles.
Lower articular surface of the astragalus divided into two nearly equal facets, one for the navicular and a second for the cuboid bone.
Union of the navicular and cuboid, and sometimes the ectocuneiform bone, of the tarsus.
Navicular and cuboid bones of tarsus united.
Navicular, cuboid and ectocuneiform bones of tarsus united.
I A), and never fuse into a complete cannon-bone;, and the navicular and cuboid bones of the tarsus are separate.
Although the brain is relatively larger, the bones of the limbs, especially the short, five-toed feet, approximate to those of the Amblypoda and Proboscidea; but in the articulation of the astragalus with both the navicular and cuboid Arsinoitherium is nearer the former than the latter group. It is probable, however, that these resemblances are mainly due to parallelism in development, and are in all three cases adaptations necessary to support the enormous weight of the body.
The trapezoid and magnum of the carpus, and the cuboid and navicular of the tarsus are distinct.
There is a pair of large nodular sesamoids behind the metacarpo-phalangeal articulation, and a single large transversely-extended sesamoid behind the joint between the second and third phalanx, called the " navicular bone."
The astragalus has a large flat articular surface in front for the navicular, and a small one for the cuboid.
6, Lower sesamoid or navicular 13, The coronary cushion, bone.