Not later than the earlier half of the 7th century B.C. In the next century Aegina is one of the three principal states trading at the emporium of Naucratis, and it is the only state of European Greece that has a share in this factory (Herod.
The British School, founded in 1886, has been unable, owing to insufficient endowment, to work on similar lines with the French and German institutions; it has, however, carried out extensive excavations at Megalopolis and in Melos, as well as researches at Abae, in Athens (presumed site of the Cynosarges), in Cyprus, at Naucratis and at Sparta.
- Founded in 332 B.C. by Alexander the Great, Alexandria was intended to supersede Naucratis as a Greek centre in Egypt, and to be the link between Macedonia and the rich Nile Valley.
The number of published weights did not exceed 600 of all standards in 1880; but the collections from Naucratis (28), Defenneh (29) and Memphis (44) have supplied over six times this quantity, and of an earlier age than most other examples, while existing collections have been more thoroughly examined.
The main series on which we shall rely here are those -- (1) from Assyria (38) about 800 B.C.; (2) from the eastern Delta of Egypt (29) (Defenneh); (3) from western Delta (28) (Naucratis); (4) from Memphis (44) -- all these about the 6th century B.C., and therefore before much interference from the decreasing coin standards; (5) from Cnidus; (6) from Athens; (7) from Corfu; and (8) from Italy (British Museum) (44).
In Egypt this is found largely at Naucratis (28, 29), and less commonly at Defenneh (29).
In actual use this unit varied greatly: at Naucratis (29) there are groups of it at 231, 223 and others down to 208; this is the earliest form in which we can study it, and the corresponding values to these are 130 and 126, or the gold and trade varieties of the Babylonian, while the lower tail down to 208 corresponds to the shekel down to 118, which is just what is found.
4000; 400,000 Another unit, which has scarcely been recognized in metrology hitherto, is prominent in the weights from Egypt -- some 50 weights from Naucratis and 15 from 400 Defenneh plainly agreeing on this and on no other basis.
Its value varies between 76.5 and 81.5 -- mean 79 at Naucratis (29) or 81 at Defenneh (29).
The range of the (34) Naucratis weights is 186 to 199, divided in two groups averaging 190 and 196, equal to the Greek monetary and trade varieties.
In Egypt the mean value at Naucratis (29) was 66.7, while at Defenneh (29) and Memphis (44) -- probably rather earlier -- it was 67.0.
NAUCRATIS, an ancient Greek settlement in Egypt.
A list of the temples of Naucratis is given by Herodotus (ii.
To the Greeks Amasis assigned the commercial colony of Naucratis on the Canopic branch of the Nile, and when the temple of Delphi was burnt he contributed I 000 talents to the rebuilding.
See NAUCRATIS; also W.
ATHENAEUS, of Naucratis in Egypt, Greek rhetorician and grammarian, flourished about the end of the 2nd and the beginning of the 3rd century A.D.
A Greek city Naucratis was allowed to arise at the Bolbitinic mouth of the Nile.
One Greek city they found existing, Naucratis; Alexander had called Alexandria into being; the first Ptolemy added Ptolemais as a Greek centre for Upper Egypt.
Of the ancient cities in the Delta there are remains, among others, of Sais, Iseum, Tanis, Bubastis, Onion, Sebennytus, Pithom, Pelusium, and of the Greek cities Naucratis and Daphnae.
(c. 570 B.C.) established Naucratis as the centre of Greek trade in Egypt.
PHYLARCHUS, a Greek historian, who flourished during the time of Aratus, the strategus of the Achaean League, in the 3rd century B.C. His birthplace is variously given as Athens, Naucratis, or Sicyon.
He was probably a native of Naucratis, and subsequently migrated to Athens.
In 1881 he began a long series of important surveys and excavations in Egypt, beginning with the pyramids at Giza, and following up his work there by excavations at the great temple at Tanis (1884), and discovering and exploring the long-lost Greek city of Naucratis in the Delta (1885), and the towns of Am and Daphnae (1886), where he found important remains of the time when they were inhabited by the Pharaohs.
Imported vases from the Aegean, of the " Dipylon," " proto-Corinthian " and " Rhodian " fabrics, occur rarely, " and were imitated by the native potters; and early in the 6th century appears the specific influence of Ionia, and still more of Naucratis in the Egyptian delta.
Besides the excavations of Athens, Delos, Epidaurus and Delphi, the results of which are most important for the 5th century B.C. and later, the exploration of the sites of Olympia, of the Heraeum near Argos, of Naucratis in Egypt, and of various Cretan towns (above all the ancient Gortyn), has revolutionized our knowledge of the archaic alphabets of Greece.
The socketed or mortising chisel (38) is unknown till the Italian bronze of the 8th century s.c., and the Naucratis iron of the 6th century.