The Roman poet Lucretius (De Rerum Natura) was an eloquent exponent of this theory, but throughout the middle ages, indeed until the 17th century, it was eclipsed by the prestige of Aristotle.
(The senses are so far from truth that we must be content with reaching probability.) In Cicero's De Natura Deorum the burden of theism rests mainly on the Stoic interlocutor.
- Two sets of writers have been considered: - first, the greater philosophers, who have incidentally furthered theism (Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, the Stoics, Descartes, Locke, Kant, Hegel, Mill, Lotze), or opposed it (Epicurus, Spinoza, Hume, Kant, Hegel, Mill, Spencer); and, secondly, the deliberate champions of theism - Cicero (especially in the De Natura Deorum), Philo, Raymond of Sabunde (in a sense), Wolff, Butler (in a sense), Paley, and a host of English and German 18th-century authors, who chiefly handle the Design argument; then recent writers like R.
C. r5; Fitzherbert, Natura brevium, 269; 2 Hen.
Fitzherbert, Natura brcvium (1534); Sir T.
Classification Of Birds Fiirbringer's great work, published in the year 1888 by the Natura Artis Magistra Society of Amsterdam, enabled Gadow not only to continue for the next five years the same lines of morphological research, but also further to investigate those questions which were still left in abeyance or seemed to require renewed study.
His most important work was 11Epi cuo ew (De natura), of which considerable fragments are extant (chiefly in Simplicius); it is possible that he wrote also Against the Sophists and On the Nature of Man, to which the well-known fragment about the veins would belong; possibly these discussions were subdivisions of his great work.
24 § 5: animae autem eorum solam esse salutem, corpus enim natura corruptibile existit).
2 Meanwhile the study received a great impulse from the appearance, at Zurich in 1555, of the third book of Conrad Gesner's Historia Animalium " qvi est de Auium natura," and at Paris in the same year of Pierre Belon's (Bellonius) Histoire de la nature des Oyseaux.
A passage in De rerum natura (vi.
Moreover, Erigena again and again declares that dialectic has to do with the stadia of a real or divine classification: " Intelligitur quod ars ilia, quae dividit genera in species et species in genera resolvit, quae X dicitur, non ab humanis machinationibus sit facta, sed in natura rerum ab auctore omnium artium, quae verae artes sunt, condita et a sapientibus inventa " (De divisione naturae, iv.
The universals, therefore, have no existence, as universals, in rerum natura; and Thomas endorses, in this sense, the polemic of Aristotle against Plato's hypostatized abstractions.
In the De Natura Deorum (i.
A single mention of his poem, the De rerum natura (which from the condition in which it has reached us may be assumed to have been published posthumously) in a letter of Cicero's to his brother Quintus, written early in S4 B.C., confirms the date given by Donatus as that of the poet's death.
The prosaic title De Rerum Natura, a translation of the Gr.
All phenomena, moral as well as material, are contemplated by him in their relation to one great organic whole, which he acknowledges under the name of "Natura daedala rerum," and the most beneficent manifestations of which he seems to symbolize and almost to deify in the "Alma Venus," whom, in apparent contradiction to his denial of a divine interference with human affairs, he invokes with prayer in the opening lines of the poem.
Cicero, who submitted to his criticism the memoirs which he had written in Greek of his consulship, made use of writings of Posidonius in De natura deorum, bk.
Some of the following are still published: Annali di matematica (1867); Annuario di giurisprudenza (1883); Archivio di statistica (1876); Archivio storico lombardo (1874); Archivio veneto (1871); Archivio per lo studio delle tradizioni popolari; Archivio per la zoologia; Il Bibliofilo; Il Filangieri (1876); La Natura (1884); Nuovo giornale botanico (1869); Giornale degli eruditi (1883); Giornale di filologia romanza; Nuova rivista Internazionale (1879); La Rassegna italiana (1881); Revue internationale (1883).
While we recognize in the De Rerum Natura some of the most powerful poetry in any language and feel that few poets have penetrated with such passionate sincerity and courage into the secret of nature and some of the deeper truths of human life, we must acknowledge that, as compared with the great didactic poem of Virgil, it is crude and unformed in artistic design, and often rough and unequal in artistic execution.
Not without reason did the medal struck to commemorate "the glorious transit of the Baltic Sea" bear the haughty inscription: Natura hoc debuit uni.
His other works are Istoria critica e filosofica del suicidio (1761); Delle conquiste celebri esaminate col naturale diritto delle genti (1763); Storia critica del moderno diritto di natura e delle genti (1789); and a few poems and philosophic comedies.
De rerum natura, i.
There is a real change in the elements - we allow ut panis iam consecratus non sit panis quem natura formavit; sed, quem benedictio consecravit, et consecrando etiam immutavit" (Responsio, p. 263).
Glauber (De natura salium, 1658), who prepared it by the action of oil of vitriol or sulphuric acid on common salt, and, ascribing to it many medicinal virtues, termed it sal mirabile Glauberi.
Patru, Wilhelmi Campellensis de natura et de origine reruns piacita (1847) E.
Natura non facit saltus.
The chief gardens in Holland are at Amsterdam, owned by the society "Natura Artis Magistra."
He is introduced by Cicero as an interlocutor in the De oratore and De natura deorum (iii.), as a supporter of the principles of the New Academy.
In the West the works of Augustine are the great repertory for information on the subject of Manichaeism (Contra epistolam Manichaei, quam vocant fundamenti; Contra Faustum Manichaeum; Contra Fortunatum; Contra Adimantum; Contra Secundinum; De actis cum Felice Manichaeo; De genesi c. Manichaeos; De natura boni; De duabus animabus; De utilitate credendi; De moribus eccl.
His treatise De natura novi orbis libri duo (Salamanca, 1588-1589) may be regarded as the preliminary draft of his celebrated Historia natural y moral de las Indias (Seville, 1590) which was speedily translated into Italian (1596), French (1597), Dutch (1598), German (1601), Latin (1602) and English (1604).
They are as follow: HEpi Tov KatvKovTos (On Duty), in three books, the original of the first two books of Cicero's De oficiis; HEpi lrpovoias (On Providence), used by Cicero in his De divinatione (ii.) and probably in part of the second book of the De Deorum natura; a political treatise (perhaps called HEpi 1roXCTG6S), used by Cicero in his De republica; HEpi 8364;bOvµias (On Cheerfulness); Hcpi aipEVECwv (On Philosophical Schools); a letter to Q.
Ferrum occulta quadam natura ad se trahit.
His chief philosophical works were an edition of the The'odicee of Leibnitz (1874), a monograph on Locke (1878), Devoirs et droits de l'homme (1880), Glissonius utrum Leibnitio de natura substantiae cogitanti quidquam tribuerit (1880)-, De La solidarite morale (4th ed., 1893).
Natural history is covered by various periodical publications of the Royal Zoological Society " Natura Artis Magistra " at Amsterdam, and the Natuurlijke Historie van Nederland (Haarlem, 1856-1863) written by specialists, and including ethnology and flora.
This was the Dialogus physicus, sive De natura aaris (L.W.
But the greatest of its Roman names was Lucretius, whose De rerum natura embodies the main teaching of Epicurus with great exactness, and with a beauty which the subject seemed scarcely to allow.
The preface treats of Greek sciences, geometry, the discovery of specific gravity by Archimedes, and other discoveries of the Greeks, and of Romans of his time who have vied with the Greeks -- Lucretius in his poem De Rerum Natura, Cicero in rhetoric, and Varro in philology, as shown by his De Lingua Latina.
In 1563, or perhaps two years later, appeared his great work De Rerum Natura, which was followed by a large number of scientific and philosophical works of subsidiary importance.
Beside the De Rerum Natura, he wrote De Somno, De his quae in aere fiunt, De Mari, De Conietis et Circulo Lacteo, De usu respirationis, &c.
A collection, consisting of de Natura deorum, de Divinatione, Timaeus, de Fato, Paradoxa, Lucullus (=Acad.
Natura is the name for the universal, the totality of all things, containing in itself being and non-being.
The germ of the idea is to be found in Cicero, De natura deorum, ii.
Deserving of attention are also the Cogitationes de Natura Rerum, probably written early, perhaps in 1605, and the treatise on the theory of the tides, De Fluxu et Refluxu Maris, written probably about 1616.
There is extant a short preface to this division of the work, and according to Spedding, some of the miscellaneous treatises, such as Cogitationes de Natura may probably have been intended to be included under this head.
Of a given nature to discover the form or true specific difference, or natureengendering nature (natura naturans) or source of emanation (for these are the terms which are nearest to a description of the thing), is the work and aim of human knowledge."' The questions, then, whose answers give the key to the whole Baconian philosophy, may be put briefly thus - What are N.
It should be observed that many writers maintain that the phrase should be notiora natura; others, notiora naturae.
Discontented with this narrow course of study, he happened to read the De Rerum Natura of Bernardino Telesio, and was delighted with its freedom of speech and its appeal to nature s rather than to authority.
Cicero, De divinatione, perhaps De natura deorum, i.
One of his works, of great importance for the history of economic conceptions in the middle ages, was the De origine, natura, jure et mutationibus monetarum, of which there is also a French edition.
They belong to a private society called Natura Artis Magistra, and came into existence in 1838.