It would put nations on the alert.
As the poorest nations become wealthier, they too will grow less and less inclined toward war.
Biographical historians and historians of separate nations understand this force as a power inherent in heroes and rulers.
Nations all around the world make their contributions.
As more nations become wealthier, they become more educated.
When the leaders of nations decide war is the best choice, they should know better.
Since the poorest nations will improve their financial conditions indefinitely, this is a long-term trend toward peace.
It is a pacific system, operating to cordialize mankind, by rendering nations, as well as individuals, useful to each other.
As we just noted, when nations buy each other's goods, that promotes peace.
But in addition, when nations trade, the underlying economies themselves grow ever more intertwined.
In the affairs of nations, large and powerful ones long have imposed their wills on the small and weak ones.
It is unprecedented for so many nations to change their form of government so quickly and peacefully.
And yet over the last century, we also have seen colonies gain their independence and become nations, and nations peaceably divide.
Fifteen new nations formed as the Soviet Union dissolved; Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia, and Sudan into North Sudan and South Sudan.
The fact that small nations can adopt standard treaties, laws, currencies, and international practices of larger countries means that a small economic unit can be viable.
I am saying that for small nations to be economically and politically viable is good news for peace.
These nations will play a substantial role in shaping this new English, as they bring grammatical structure, idioms, and nuanced words from their native tongue.
Nations will maintain their own traditions, holidays, music, idioms, diets, and a thousand things that make them different from other nations.
Nations are possessed with an insane ambition to perpetuate the memory of themselves by the amount of hammered stone they leave.
All historians agree that the external activity of states and nations in their conflicts with one another is expressed in wars, and that as a direct result of greater or less success in war the political strength of states and nations increases or decreases.
History is the life of nations and of humanity.
In 1812 it reaches its extreme limit, Moscow, and then, with remarkable symmetry, a countermovement occurs from east to west, attracting to it, as the first movement had done, the nations of middle Europe.
For a reply to these questions the common sense of mankind turns to the science of history, whose aim is to enable nations and humanity to know themselves.
How should the past life of nations and of humanity be regarded--as the result of the free, or as the result of the constrained, activity of man?
And if history has for its object the study of the movement of the nations and of humanity and not the narration of episodes in the lives of individuals, it too, setting aside the conception of cause, should seek the laws common to all the inseparably interconnected infinitesimal elements of free will.
For nations, or rather tribes, were then distinguished by personal names only.
Retaining their original language and preserving the customs and institutions of remote antiquity, they present a distinct type, and differ in many essential particulars from the other nations of the peninsula.
The native folklore and poetry of the Albanians can hardly compare with that of the neighbouring nations in originality and beauty.
He will soon shake all nations and their choicest gifts will be brought to adorn His house.
The debts of the two nations resulted largely from this one cause.
Spanish legislation was not satisfied with endeavouring to exclude all European nations except Spain from trading with the West Indies, but it sought to limit all commerce to one particular route, and it forbade any trade being transacted by way of the river Plate, thus enacting the most flagrant injustice towards the people it had encouraged to settle in the latter country.
Rebellions of the subject nations may have occurred also.
It but remains to call attention to the fact that the earlier view of the liver as the seat of the soul gave way among many ancient nations to the theory which, reflecting the growth of anatomical knowledge, assigned that function to the heart, while, with the further change which led to placing the seat of soul-life in the brain, an attempt was made to partition the various functions of manifestations of personality among the three organs, brain, heart and liver, the intellectual activity being assigned to the first-named; the higher emotions, as love and courage, to the second; while the liver, once the master of the entire domain of soul-life as understood in antiquity, was degraded to serve as the seat of the lower emotions, such as jealousy, anger and the like.
Repeated attempts were made by various European nations to subdue the pirates, and in 1816 the city was bombarded by a British squadron under Lord Exmouth, assisted by Dutch men-of-war, and the corsair fleet burned.
The minority among the "nations" chose him as rector in opposition to the elected candidate, Aubri de.
In 1490 a treaty was signed at Damme between the people of Bruges and the archduke Maximilian, and very soon after this event the channel became completely closed up, and the foreign merchant gilds or "nations" left the place for Antwerp. This signified the death of the port and was indirectly fatal to Bruges as well.
The system of setting nations by the ears with the view of settling the quarrels of a few reigning houses was reduced to absurdity when the people, as in these cases, came to be partitioned and exchanged without the assertion or negation of a single principle affecting their interests or rousing their emotions.
Had the blow thus struck at Italian influence in the Mediterranean induced politicians to sink for a while their personal differences and to unite in presenting a firm front to foreign nations, the crisis in regard to Tunisia might not have been wholly unproductive of good.
As usual when dealing with weaker nations, the German chancellor resorted to intimidation.
122) point the contrast between their simple life and the effeminate nations of the civilized countries of Asia.
Both in Persepolis and Pasargadae large masses of gold and silver from the tribute of the subject nations were treasured, as in Susa and Ecbatana.
Political geography takes account of the partition of the earth amongst organized communities, dealing with the relation of races to regions, and of nations to countries, and considering the conditions of territorial equilibrium and instability.
In South America strictly defined boundaries are still the exception, and the claims of neighbouring nations have very frequently given rise to war, though now more commonly to arbitration.'
He visited Russia in order to collect documents on the political and economic organization of the Slav nations, and on his return published in the Revue des deux mondes (1882-1889) a series of articles, which appeared shortly afterwards in book form under the title L'Empire des tsars et les Russes (4th ed., revised in 3 vols., 1897-1898).
Prominent among them, and dwelling in the division occupied by the Celts, were the Helvetii, the Sequani and the Aedui, in the basins of the Rhodanus and its tributary the Arar (Saone), who, he says, were reckoned the three most powerful nations in all Gaul; the Arverni in the mountains of Cebenna; the Senones and Carnutes in the basin of the Liger; the Veneti and other Armorican tribes between the mouths of the Liger and Sequana.
Where the.y gradually lost themselves among the people whom they conquered; they adopted the language and the national feelings of the lands in which they settled; but at the same time they often modified, often strengthened the national usages and national life of the various nations in which they were finally merged.
The Norman power in Sicily was founded on a strong distinction between the ruling people and the many nations which they kept in peace and prosperity by not throwing in their lot with any one among them.
In Sicily, Greek, Arabic, Latin and its children were the tongues of distinct nations; French might be the politest speech, but neither Greek nor Arabic could be set down as a vulgar tongue, Arabic even less than Greek.
The way in which nobility has arisen in different times and places is very various, and there are several nations whose history will supply us with examples of a nobility of one kind giving way to a nobility of another kind.
" For our sins," says the Russian chronicler of the time, " unknown nations arrived.
Now she was beginning to consider herself a powerful member of the European family of nations, and she aspired to exercise a predominant influence in all European questions.
When peace was finally concluded, he had obtained that predominant position in European politics which had been the object of his ambition since the commencement of his reign, and he now believed firmly that he had been chosen by Providence to secure the happiness of the world in general and of the European nations in particular.
In a secret article of the treaty the sultan undertook in the event of a casus foederis arising, and in consideration of being relieved of his obligations under the articles of the public treaty, to close the Dardanelles to the warships of all nations " au besoin," which meant in effect that in the event of Russia being threatened with an attack from the Mediterranean he would close the Dardanelles against the invader.
Smallpox affected the rich and the poor and it changed the course of history: It killed Queen Mary II of England in 1694, King Louis I of Spain in 1724, Emperor Peter II of Russia in 1730, and King Louis XV of France in 1774, and changed the succession to the thrones of nations a dozen more times.
Although nations create governments to establish such protections, history shows that all too often, governments fail to do so.
Long term, this hurts nations more than expropriation has helped them.
When nations are young and when they are poor, they usually focus on two things: the military and civil order.
Nations can do this by acquiring enough military might that an attempted land grab would cost their neighbors more than they would get if successful.
Once borders are secured, nations turn to social order.
Wise nations then work on making a stable and valuable money supply.
Roughly speaking, if you look at the poorest forty nations in the world, who have an average income per person of about $1,500 a year, their effective tax rates are about 20 percent.
It is safe to say that more than a majority of people in rich nations feel this way.
Nations with high percentages of hungry citizens are not universally food exporters, and we will explore this more later.
The United Nations has estimated that earth's population will pass nine billion by 2050, and ten billion by 2100.
Instead, the poorest nations should simply resign themselves to importing their food from abroad and instead get jobs working in cities in factories.
Others say poor nations need to develop free markets in agriculture and strongly discourage government intervention.
If poor nations decide to pursue what I will call the Japan strategy, importing all their food and developing other industry, then they become huge fans of farm subsidies in other countries.
Food security is a real issue, and nations that do not at least produce some kinds of food are at risk.
It has a large number of landlocked nations without ports to access the international markets, both for imports and exports.
The United Nations World Food Programme was so inspired by this success that pilot programs for an exchange were launched in twenty-one countries.
Is our nation so poor or so weak that we must resort to the ultimate in pragmatism and befriend nations in the name of commerce or prosperity or military security while turning a blind eye to the suffering of their people?
War occurs for a very simple reason: To some nations at some time, war is preferable to peace.
If it can be demonstrated that in the future, peace will always be preferable to all nations, then war will end.
No such system of laws controls relations among nations, no significant world police force exists, and the world court system is very weak.
The rising prosperity of wealthy nations and the emergence of more wealthy nations.
In military alliances, however, it is much likelier that when nations choose their friends, they create enemies where there were none before.
Slowly but steadily, as part of the growth of civilization, countries are signing treaties and reaching agreements that spell out in detail the common set of rules those nations will abide by.
Other nations are becoming more transparent as well.
In the future, nations still will have differences.
My mind stirred with the stirring times, and the characters round which the life of two contending nations centred seemed to move right before me.
It should not be by their architecture, but why not even by their power of abstract thought, that nations should seek to commemorate themselves?
But when the several nations of Europe had acquired distinct though rude written languages of their own, sufficient for the purposes of their rising literatures, then first learning revived, and scholars were enabled to discern from that remoteness the treasures of antiquity.
As I drew a still fresher soil about the rows with my hoe, I disturbed the ashes of unchronicled nations who in primeval years lived under these heavens, and their small implements of war and hunting were brought to the light of this modern day.
Successive nations perchance have drank at, admired, and fathomed it, and passed away, and still its water is green and pellucid as ever.
Nations come and go without defiling it.
The forces of a dozen European nations burst into Russia.
The flood of nations begins to subside into its normal channels.
But as soon as the necessity for a general European war presented itself he appeared in his place at the given moment and, uniting the nations of Europe, led them to the goal.
It would seem that having rejected the belief of the ancients in man's subjection to the Deity and in a predetermined aim toward which nations are led, modern history should study not the manifestations of power but the causes that produce it.
Writers of universal history who deal with all the nations seem to recognize how erroneous is the specialist historians' view of the force which produces events.
But in that case, if the force that moves nations lies not in the historic leaders but in the nations themselves, what significance have those leaders?
Vico held God to be the ruler of the world of nations, but ruling, not as the providence of the middle ages by means of continued miracles, but as He rules nature, by means of natural laws.
Having once derived this conception from Roman history, he was easily and indeed necessarily carried on to the next - that the positive law of all nations, throughout history, is a continual advance, keeping pace with the progress of civilization, towards the philosophic and natural law founded on 'the principles of human nature and human reason.
The connexion in Roman law between the ideas of equity, nature, natural law and the law common to all nations, and the influence of the Stoical philosophy on their development, are fully discussed in the third chapter of the work we have referred to.
Their power extended far into Arabia, particularly along the Red Sea; and Petra was a meeting-place of many nations, though its commerce was diminished by the rise of the Eastern trade-route from Myoshormus to Coptos on the Nile.
As regards candidates for ecclesiastical offices, the concordats concluded with Catholic nations regularly give the sovereign the right to nominate or present to bishoprics, often also to other inferior benefices, such as canonries, important parishes and abbeys; or at least the choice of the ecclesiastical authority is submitted to the approval of the civil power.
Had had to make with the different nations special arrangements which were valid for five years only, and by which he renounced the revenues of vacant benefices.
The rights of the Six Nations to all this territory were purchased at Albany, New York, by the Susquehanna Company in 1754, but the work of colonization was delayed for a time by the Seven Years' War.
In the meantime the Six Nations (in 1768) had repudiated their sale of the region to the Susquehanna Company and had sold it to the Penns; the Penns had erected here the manors of Stoke and Sunbury, the government of Pennsylvania had commissioned Charles Stewart, Amos Ogden and others to lay out these manors, and they had arrived and taken possession of the block-house and huts at Mill Creek in January 1769.
In the spring of 323 he moved down to Babylon, receiving on the way embassies from lands as far as the confines of the known world, for the eyes of all nations were now turned with fear or wonder to the figure which had appeared with so superhuman an effect upon the world's stage.
Wheeler, Alexander the Great (1900) in the "Heroes of the Nations Series."
Having reached the ends of the earth and conquered all nations, he aspires to the dominion of the air.
But he conceives of him, on the other hand, as limited locally and morally - as having his special abode in the Jerusalem temple, or elsewhere in the midst of the Israelite people, and as dealing with other nations solely in the interests of Israel.
20-23, Zerubbabel is assured of God's special love and protection in the impending catastrophe of kingdoms and nations to which the prophet had formerly pointed as preceding the glorification of God's house on Zion.
The first of these nations to make good its footing in the region was France.
In Sicily the Normans found the two most outwardly civilized of the nations of Europe, the two which had as yet carried the arts to the highest pitch.
The Brains set up the Planetary Council-- the alien version of the United Nations-- several generations before to mediate between the warring planets within the Five Galaxies.
In thus looking forward to a shaking of all nations Haggai agrees with earlier prophecies, especially Isa.