As the poorest nations become wealthier, they too will grow less and less inclined toward war.
Biographical historians and historians of separate nations understand this force as a power inherent in heroes and rulers.
When the leaders of nations decide war is the best choice, they should know better.
Nations all around the world make their contributions.
As more nations become wealthier, they become more educated.
Since the poorest nations will improve their financial conditions indefinitely, this is a long-term trend toward peace.
It is a pacific system, operating to cordialize mankind, by rendering nations, as well as individuals, useful to each other.
As we just noted, when nations buy each other's goods, that promotes peace.
But in addition, when nations trade, the underlying economies themselves grow ever more intertwined.
In the affairs of nations, large and powerful ones long have imposed their wills on the small and weak ones.
It is unprecedented for so many nations to change their form of government so quickly and peacefully.
In military alliances, however, it is much likelier that when nations choose their friends, they create enemies where there were none before.
And yet over the last century, we also have seen colonies gain their independence and become nations, and nations peaceably divide.
Fifteen new nations formed as the Soviet Union dissolved; Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia, and Sudan into North Sudan and South Sudan.
The fact that small nations can adopt standard treaties, laws, currencies, and international practices of larger countries means that a small economic unit can be viable.
I am saying that for small nations to be economically and politically viable is good news for peace.
These nations will play a substantial role in shaping this new English, as they bring grammatical structure, idioms, and nuanced words from their native tongue.
Nations will maintain their own traditions, holidays, music, idioms, diets, and a thousand things that make them different from other nations.
Nations are possessed with an insane ambition to perpetuate the memory of themselves by the amount of hammered stone they leave.
All historians agree that the external activity of states and nations in their conflicts with one another is expressed in wars, and that as a direct result of greater or less success in war the political strength of states and nations increases or decreases.
In 1812 it reaches its extreme limit, Moscow, and then, with remarkable symmetry, a countermovement occurs from east to west, attracting to it, as the first movement had done, the nations of middle Europe.
For a reply to these questions the common sense of mankind turns to the science of history, whose aim is to enable nations and humanity to know themselves.
How should the past life of nations and of humanity be regarded--as the result of the free, or as the result of the constrained, activity of man?
And if history has for its object the study of the movement of the nations and of humanity and not the narration of episodes in the lives of individuals, it too, setting aside the conception of cause, should seek the laws common to all the inseparably interconnected infinitesimal elements of free will.
For nations, or rather tribes, were then distinguished by personal names only.
Retaining their original language and preserving the customs and institutions of remote antiquity, they present a distinct type, and differ in many essential particulars from the other nations of the peninsula.
The native folklore and poetry of the Albanians can hardly compare with that of the neighbouring nations in originality and beauty.
He will soon shake all nations and their choicest gifts will be brought to adorn His house.
The debts of the two nations resulted largely from this one cause.
Spanish legislation was not satisfied with endeavouring to exclude all European nations except Spain from trading with the West Indies, but it sought to limit all commerce to one particular route, and it forbade any trade being transacted by way of the river Plate, thus enacting the most flagrant injustice towards the people it had encouraged to settle in the latter country.
Rebellions of the subject nations may have occurred also.
Now she was beginning to consider herself a powerful member of the European family of nations, and she aspired to exercise a predominant influence in all European questions.
When peace was finally concluded, he had obtained that predominant position in European politics which had been the object of his ambition since the commencement of his reign, and he now believed firmly that he had been chosen by Providence to secure the happiness of the world in general and of the European nations in particular.
In a secret article of the treaty the sultan undertook in the event of a casus foederis arising, and in consideration of being relieved of his obligations under the articles of the public treaty, to close the Dardanelles to the warships of all nations " au besoin," which meant in effect that in the event of Russia being threatened with an attack from the Mediterranean he would close the Dardanelles against the invader.
" For our sins," says the Russian chronicler of the time, " unknown nations arrived.
One of the Polish kings, for example, threatened with death the English sailors who should attempt to carry on the illicit trade in arms, on the ground that " the Muscovite, who is not only our opponent of to-day but the eternal enemy of all free nations, should not be allowed to supply himself with cannons, bullets and munitions or with artisans who manufacture arms hitherto unknown to those barbarians."
The way in which nobility has arisen in different times and places is very various, and there are several nations whose history will supply us with examples of a nobility of one kind giving way to a nobility of another kind.
Where the.y gradually lost themselves among the people whom they conquered; they adopted the language and the national feelings of the lands in which they settled; but at the same time they often modified, often strengthened the national usages and national life of the various nations in which they were finally merged.
The Norman power in Sicily was founded on a strong distinction between the ruling people and the many nations which they kept in peace and prosperity by not throwing in their lot with any one among them.
In Sicily, Greek, Arabic, Latin and its children were the tongues of distinct nations; French might be the politest speech, but neither Greek nor Arabic could be set down as a vulgar tongue, Arabic even less than Greek.
In Sicily the Normans found the two most outwardly civilized of the nations of Europe, the two which had as yet carried the arts to the highest pitch.
Prominent among them, and dwelling in the division occupied by the Celts, were the Helvetii, the Sequani and the Aedui, in the basins of the Rhodanus and its tributary the Arar (Saone), who, he says, were reckoned the three most powerful nations in all Gaul; the Arverni in the mountains of Cebenna; the Senones and Carnutes in the basin of the Liger; the Veneti and other Armorican tribes between the mouths of the Liger and Sequana.