Natal proper has a seaboard of 166 m.
The works which have made Port Natal the finest harbour in South Africa are described under Durban.
The larger animals which abounded in Natal in the first half of the 19th century have been exterminated or driven out of the country.
Before that period the natives of what is now Natal proper were estimated to number about 10o,000.
The Natal natives have preserved their tribal organization to a considerable extent.
Of the tribes who were in Natal before the Zulu invasion about 1812, the two largest are the Abatembu (who are in five main divisions and number about 30,000) and the Amakwabe (seven divisions and about 20.000 people).
Land lines connect Natal with every part of South Africa and with Nyasaland and Ujiji.
The schism arose out of the alleged heterodox views of Bishop Colenso (q.v.), who had been created bishop of Natal by letters patent in 1853.
During the rebellion of the natives in Natal and Zululand in 1906 the Basuto remained perfectly quiet.
Pp. 53-7 2 (1871); P. C. Sutherland, " Notes on an Ancient Boulder Clay of Natal," Quart.
In a distance of 170 m., Natal possesses several varieties of climate but is nowhere unhealthy.
On this, the normal South African gauge, all the Natal railways, save a few 2-ft.
The heaths and proteads common at the Cape peninsula, in Basutoland and other parts of South Africa, are rare in Natal, but almost any species of the flora of semi-tropical and temperate countries introduced attains perfection.
The three last tribes are among those which sought refuge in Natal from Zulu persecution, before the establishment of British rule in 1843.
Durban (Port Natal) is in regular communication with Europe via Cape Town and via Suez by several lines of steamers, the chief being the boats of the Union-Castle line, which sail from Southampton and follow the west coast route, those of the German East Africa line, which sail from Hamburg and go via the east coast route and those of the Austrian Lloyd from Trieste, also by the east coast route.
Gauge and was privately owned, but, when in 1876 the Natal government determined to build and own a railway system which should in time cover the country, the existing line was bought out and the gauge altered to 3 ft.
To Riverside Station, forming a link in the scheme for direct communication between Natal and East London and Port Elizabeth.
As might be expected in a country possessing the physical features of Natal, the gradients and curves are exceptionally severe.
The Orange Free State line, after leaving Ladysmith, ascends by steep gradients the whole of its own course in Natal territory, and when it gains the summit at Van Reenen's Pass it is 5500 ft.
The first telegraph line in Natal was opened in 1873; in 1878 communication was established with Cape Town and in the following year with Delagoa Bay.
The tea plant was first introduced in Natal in 1850, but little attention was paid to it until the failure of the coffee plantations about 1875, since when only small quantities of coffee have been produced.
The Natal horse is small, wiry, and has great powers of endurance.
Rinderpest in1896-1897swept through South Africa, and probably carried off in Natal from 30 to 40% of the stock of Europeans, while the natives' losses were even heavier.
Large herds of cattle - over 500,000 in the aggregate - are owned by the natives, who also possess vast flocks of goats and sheep. The dairy industry is well established, and Natal butter commands a ready sale.
Natal was from 1893 to 1910 a self-governing colony.
The batteries are manned by the naval corps (150 strong) of the Natal militia.
Natal makes an annual contribution of £35, 00 0 towards the upkeep of the British navy.
The Roman-Dutch law, as accepted and administered by the courts of Cape Colony up to 1845 (the date of the separation of Natal from the Cape), is the law of the land, save as modified by ordinances and laws enacted by the local legislature, mostly founded upon imperial statute law.
He did much to advance stellar photography and its use in cataloguing the stars, and he was responsible for the geodetic surveys of Natal and Cape Colony, British Bechuanaland, German S.-W.
Sir Matthew Nathan has been governor of Hong-Kong and Natal, and among Jewish statesmen in the colonies Sir Julius Vogel and V.
Several passes through the Drakensberg into Griqualand East and Natal exist, but are little used.
NATAL, a maritime province of the Union of South Africa, situated nearly between 27° and 31° S., 29° and 33° E.
In this article the description of the physical features, &c. refers only to Natal proper.
The south-eastern sides of the mountains are in part covered with heavy timber, while the semi-tropical luxuriance of the coast belt has earned for Natal the title of " the garden colony."
It extends from the mouth of the Umtamvuna river (31° 4' S., 30° 12' E.), which separates Natal from the Cape, to the mouth of the Tugela (29° 15' S., 31° 30' E.), which marks the frontier between Natal and Zululand.
The southern entrance to Durban harbour is marked by a bold bluff, the Bluff of Natal, which is 250 ft.
The chief heights in Natal between Mont-auxSources and Laing's Nek are Tintwa (7500 ft.), Inkwelo (6808 ft.) and the flat-topped Majuba (7000 ft.).
This range contains, in Indumeni (7200 ft.), the highest mountain in Natal outside the main Drakensberg.
All the rivers of Natal not purely coast streams have their origin in the Drakensberg or its secondary ranges.
Below the junction the Umzimkulu forms for some distance the frontier between Natal and the Griqualand East division of the Cape.
Port Shepstone is situated at the mouth of the river, which, like that of all others in Natal, is obstructed by a bar.
Of Giant's Castle, passes through the central part of Natal and reaches the sea 4 m.
Other rivers of Natal which rise in the spurs of the Drakensberg or in the higher terraces are the Umvoti, which runs south of the Tugela and gives its name to a county division, the Umlaas (which gives Durban its main water supply, the Illovo, which traverse .the country between Lthe Umgeni and Umkomaas, and the Umtamvuna, noteworthy as forming the boundary between Natal and Pondoland.
The general geological structure of Natal and Zululand is simple.
Griesbach, " On the Geology of Natal in South Africa," Quart.
Survey, Natal and Zululand (Pietermaritzburg, 1901; London, 1904); and " Science in South Africa," Handbook, Brit.
Botanically, Natal is divided into three zones: (1) the coast belt, extending from the sea inland to heights of 1500 ft., and in some cases to 1800 and 2000 ft.; (2) the midland region, which rises to 4000 ft.; (3) the upper regions.
The amatungulu or Natal plum, found chiefly near the sea, is one of the few wild plantswith edible fruit.
Other wild fruits are the so-called Cape gooseberry (not native to Natal) and the kaw apple or Dingaan apricot, which grows on a species of ebony tree.
The midland region is characterized by grass lands (the Natal grasses are long and coarse) and by considerable areas of flat-topped thorn bush mimosa.
The most common are the Natal lily with pink and white ribbed bells, the fire-lily, with flame-coloured blossoms, ixias, gladiolas, the Ifafa lily, with fuchsia-like clusters, and the arum lily.
The birds of Natal are of many species; some have beautiful plumage, but none of them, with the exception of the canary, are to be considered as songsters.
Woodward, Natal Birds (Maritzburg, 1899).
The native inhabitants of Natal proper were almost exterminated by the Zulus in the early years of the 19th century.
Of Durban (q.v.), the seaport and only large city in Natal, pop. 67,842.
The chief exports, not all products of the province, are coal, wool, mohair, hides and skins, wattle bark, tea, sugar, fruits and jams. The import trade is of a most varied character, and a large proportion of the goods brought into the country are in transit to the Transvaal and Orange Free State, Natal affording, next to Delagoa Bay, the shortest route to the Rand.
2 (of the Natal Legislature) of 1883.
The South Africa Act 1909 established a Supreme Court of South Africa, the former supreme court of Natal becoming a provincial division of the new supreme court.
There is but one cactus indigenous to Natal; it is found hanging from perpendicular rocks in the midlands.
Some particulars follow as to the financial position of Natal previous to the establishment of the 15nion.
But a series of cases, of which the most remarkable was that Re the Bishop of Natal (3 Moore P.C. N.S.
(For map see South Africa.) The province consists of two great divisions, namely Natal proper and Zululand.
From the inner sides of that mountain descend the Caledon and the Senku, whilst from its seaward face the Tugela flows through Natal to the Indian Ocean.