The nasals were used by A.
The skull is elongated, with the orbit not separated from the temporal fossa and the nasals, which may or may not carry horns, reaching at least as far forwards as the union of the premaxillae.
Nasals long, normally without traces of horns.
Nasals long in early, but shorter in later forms, hornless; orbit open behind.
The prefrontal bones are still in contact with the nasals as in the previous families, but the coronoid bones of the mandibles are absent as in the remaining families, and this loss also occurs in the Boine Charina.
- The rodent skull is characterized by the great size of the premaxillae, which completely separate the nasals from the maxillae; by the presence of zygomatic arches; and by the wide unoccupied space existing between the incisors and the cheek-teeth; and (except in the Duplicidentata) by the antero-posteriorly elongated glenoid cavity for the articulation of the lower jaw.
The nasals are, with few exceptions, large, and extend far forwards, the pari etals are moderate, and there is generally a distinct interparietal.
Voiceless nasals: mh; nh; ngh.
Voiced nasals: m; n; ng.
The sounds of t and d are more dental than in English, though they vary; the voiced spirants are very soft; the voiceless nasals are aspirated, thus is similar to Eng.
(2) After nasals p, t, c, b, d, g became respectively mh, nh, ngh, m, n, ng; thus 2mperator gave ymherawdr, and ambactos (evidently a Brythonic as well as a Gaulish word) gave amaeth (m, though etymologically double, is written single).
In the .consonantal system we col 1 struck by the abundance of sibilants (s and sh, in three forms modification, z and zh) and nasals (five in number), and by the rer mplete absence of 1.
The South Australian Caloprymnus campestris represents a genus near akin to the last, but with the edge of the hairy border of the bare muzzle less emarginate in the middle line, still more swollen auditory bullae, very large and posterially expanded nasals and longer vacuities on the palate.
Prefrontal bones are present in the Salamandridae and Amphiumidae, but absent (or fused with the nasals) in the other Caudata and in the Ecaudata.
In front of the brain cavity, the great tubular nasal cavities are provided with well-developed turbinal bones, and are roofed over by large nasals, broad behind, and ending in front in a narrow decurved point.
The opening of the anterior nostrils is prolonged backwards on each side of the face between the nasals and the elongated slender premaxillae.