In 551 it was taken by Totila, but reconquered after his death by Narses for the Byzantine Empire.
When, therefore, Justinian undertook the reconquest of Italy, his generals, Belisarius and Narses, were supported by the south.
Narses had employed Lombard auxiliaries in his, campaigns against the The Goths; and when he was recalled by ~n insulting Lombards.
The legends are in Aramaic characters and Persian (Pahlavi) language; among them occur Artaxerxes, Darius (from a dynast of this name the town Darabjird, "town of Darius," in eastern Persia seems to derive its name), Narses, Tiridates, Manocihr and others; the name Vahuburz seems to be identical with Oborzos, mentioned by Polyaenus vii.
Its connexion with that empire - or, in other words, its dependence upon Constantinople - lasted for more than 200 years, during which period, under the rule of Narses and his successors the exarchs, Ravenna was the seat of Byzantine dominion in Italy.
Their maritime importance compelled Narses, the imperial commander, to seek their aid in transporting his army from Grado; and when the Paduans appealed to the Eunuch to restore their rights over the Brenta, the Venetians replied by declaring that islands of the lagoon and the river mouths that fell into the estuary were the property of those who had rendered them habitable and serviceable.
Narses declined to intervene, Padua was powerless to enforce its claims and Venice established a virtual independence of the mainland.
After its reconstruction with the help of Narses (see IGUvIUM) the town remained subject to the exarchs of Ravenna, and, after the destruction of the Lombard kingdom in 774, formed part of the donation of Charlemagne to the pope.
The other, John bar Aphtonya, was the founder of the famous monastery of Kenneshre, opposite ' See Feldmann, Syrische Wechsellieder von Narses (Leipzig, 1896); Mingana, Narsai, homiliae et carmina (2 vols., Mosul, 1905); and other editions of which a list is given by Duval, p. 344 seq.
The conduct of a new campaign was entrusted to the eunuch Narses; Totila marched against him and was defeated and killed at the battle of Tagina in July 552.
The city was seized again by the Goths under Totila, and again restored to the Eastern Empire by Narses in 568.
The bridge of Narses, built in the 6th century (fig.
During the siege of Rome by Narses, Belisarius occupied Tibur: it was afterwards treacherously surrendered to Totila, whose troops plundered it, but who rebuilt it in A.D.
Here took place the battle between Narses and Teias in A.D.
The next incident is the defeat of Galerius, between Carrhae and Callinicus, where he had entered Mesopotamia (about 296), in the war provoked by Narses in consequence of his relations with Armenia.
With the accession of Phocas (602) began the great war which shook the two kingdoms. The loss of Edessa, where Narses revolted, was temporary; but the Roman fortress of Dara fell after nine months' siege (c. 605); Harran, Ras al-`Ain and Edessa followed in 607, many of the Christian inhabitants being transported to the Far East, and Chosroes carried the victorious arms of Persia far into the Roman Empire.
It deals chiefly with the struggles of the Byzantine army, under the command of the eunuch Narses, against the Goths, Vandals, Franks and Persians.
We may note that, owing to the growth of the temporal power of the popes, there was never a dux Romae dependent on the exarchate of Ravenna, similar to those established by Narses in the other districts of Italy.
In 296, at the beginning of the Persian War, he was removed from the Danube to the Euphrates; his first campaign ended in a crushing defeat, near Callinicum, but in 2 97, advancing through the mountains of Armenia, he gained a decisive victory over Narses and compelled him to make peace.
It does not appear whether he was with the Roman armies in the later stages of the Gothic War, when Belisarius and afterwards Narses fought against Totila in Italy; his narrative of these years is much less full and minute than that of the earlier warfare.
The emperor at last complied, and in 552 a powerful army was despatched under Narses, an Armenian eunuch now advanced in life, but reputed the most skilful general of the age, as Belisarius was the hottest soldier.
Three years later (in 568), on the alleged invitation of Narses, who was irritated by the treatment he had received from the emperor Justin II., Alboin invaded Italy, probably marching over the pass of the Predil.
Narses won a victory over the Goths near Todi in 552, and Totila lost his life.
It was in these circumstances that he returned to Rome; but most of the clergy, suspecting his orthodoxy, and believing him to have had some share in the removal of his predecessor, shunned his fellowship. He enjoyed, however, the support of Narses, and, after he had publicly purged himself of complicity in Vigilius's death in the church of St Peter, he met with toleration in his own immediate diocese.
The bishops of Liguria and Aemilia, headed by the archbishop of Milan, and those of Istria and Venice, headed by Paulinus of Aquileia, also withheld their fellowship; but Narses resisted the appeals of Pelagius, who would have invoked the secular arm.
NARSES (c. 478 - J73) an important officer of Justinian, in the 6th century.
In this capacity, in 530, he received into the emperor's obedience another Narses, a fellow-countryman, with his two brothers, Aratius and Isaac. These Persarmenian generals, having formerly fought under the standard of Persia, now in consequence of the successes of Belisarius transferred their allegiance to the emperor Justinian, came to Constantinople, and received costly gifts from the great minister.
It was saved partly by the courage of his wife, Theodora, and partly by the timely prodigality of Narses, who stole out into the capital, and with large sums of money bribed the leaders of the "blue" faction, which was aforetime loyal to the emperor, to shout as of old "Justiniane Auguste to vincas."
Reinforcements were sent into Italy, and Narses was placed at their head.
Belisarius understood that Narses came to serve under him like any other officer of distinguished but subordinate rank, and he received a letter from Justinian which seemed to support this conclusion.
But the friends of Narses continually plied him with suggestions that he, a great officer of the household, in the secrets of the emperor, had been sent to Italy, not to serve as a subaltern, but to hold independent command and win military glory for himself.
The first interference of Narses with the plans of Belisarius was beneficial.
But his friend Narses so insisted on the blow to the reputation of the imperial arms which would be produced by the surrender of Rimini that he carried the council of war with him, and Belisarius had to plan a brilliant march across the mountains, in conjunction with a movement by the fleet, whereby Rimini was relieved while Osimo was still untaken.
When Belisarius and John met, the latter ostentatiously thanked Narses alone for his preservation.
The two generals who were sent to relieve it loitered disgracefully over their march, and, when Belisarius wished to despatch further reinforcements, the commanders of these new troops refused to stir till Narses gave them orders.
At length, grudgingly, Narses gave his consent, and issued the required orders; but it was too late.
This event forced Justinian to recognize the dangers of even a partially divided command, and he recalled Narses to Constantinople.
Twelve years elapsed before Narses returned to Italy.
In the spring of 55 2 Narses set sail from Salona on the Dalmatian coast with a large and well-appointed army.
Lombards, Heruli, Huns, Gepidae and even Persians followed the standard of Narses, men equal in physical strength and valour to the Goths, and inspired by the liberal pay which they received, and by the hope of plunder.
The task of Narses, however, was - not - yet ended.
By the invitation of the Goths an army of 75,000 warlike Alamanni and Franks, the subjects of King Theudibald, crossed the Alps under the command of two Alamannic nobles, the brothers Lothair and Buccelin (553) The great strategic talents of Narses were shown even more conspicuously in this, than in his previous and more brilliant campaigns.
Here, after a time, Narses accepted the offered battle (554) The barbarians, whose army was in the form of a wedge, pierced the Roman centre.
But by a most skilful manoeuvre Narses contrived to draw his lines into a curve, so that his mounted archers on each flank could aim their arrows at the backs of the troops who formed the other side of the Alamannic wedge.
The only other important military operation of Narses which is recorded - and that indistinctly - is his defeat of the Herulian king Sindbal, who had served under him at Capua, but who subsequently revolted, was defeated, taken captive and hanged by the eunuch's order (565).
In the main the thirteen years after the battle of Capua (554-567) were years of peace, and during them Narses ruled Italy from Ravenna with the title of prefect.'
At the close of 565 Justinian died, and a deputation of Romans waited upon his successor Justin II., representing that they found "the Greeks" harder taskmasters than the Goths, that Narses the eunuch was determined to reduce them all to slavery, and that unless he were removed they would transfer their allegiance to the barbarians.
This deputation led to the recall of Narses in 567, accompanied, according to a somewhat late tradition, by an insulting message from the empress Sophia, who sent him a golden distaff, and bade him, as he was not a man, go and spin wool in the apartments of the women.
"I will spin her such a hank," Narses is represented as saying, "that she shall not find the end of it in her lifetime"; and forthwith he sent messengers to the Lombards in Pannonia, bearing some of the fruits of Italy, and inviting them to enter the land which bore such goodly produce.
Hence came the invasion of Alboin (568), which wrested the greater part of Italy from the empire, and changed the destinies of the peninsula.2 1 Gibbon's statement that Narses was "the first and most powerful of the exarchs" is more correct in substance than in form.